Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Category: Photographs

Sarah “Sallie” Greenfield Winn.


SARAH GREENFIELD WINN was born about 1820, probably in southeast Wayne County.  She married Gray Winn about 1835 and was widowed in 1850.  Their children were Elizabeth Winn Simmons, Edward James Winn, Eliza Winn, Penny Winn Simmons, Ally Winn and Washington Francis Winn. She died in 1909 and is buried near her son Edward in a small family graveyard near Dudley in Wayne County.

Photograph by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1850 census of South Side of the Neuse, Wayne County: Sally Winn, 30, and children Betsey, 14, Edw’d J., 12, Eliza, 10, Penny, 6, Ally, 4, and Washington, 1.

George Henry White.


GEORGE HENRY WHITE (December 18, 1852 – December 28, 1918) was an attorney, the Republican U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1897 and 1901, and a banker. He is considered the last African-American Congressman of the Jim Crow era, one of twenty to be elected in the late nineteenth century from the South.

White was born in Rosindale, Bladen County, North Carolina, where his natural mother may have been a slave.  His father Wiley Franklin White was a free person of color of Scots-Irish and African ancestry, who was a laborer in a turpentine camp. George had an older brother, John, and their father may have purchased their freedom.  In 1857 Wiley White married Mary Anna Spaulding, a granddaughter of Benjamin Spaulding. Born into slavery as the son of a white plantation owner, Spaulding had been freed as a young man and worked to acquire more than 2300 acres of pine woods, which he apportioned to his own large family.

White studied at Howard University. He graduated in 1877 and was hired as a principal at a school in New Bern. He studied law in the city as an apprentice under former Superior Court Judge William J. Clarke and was admitted to the North Carolina bar in 1879.

In 1880 White ran as a Republican candidate from New Bern and was elected to a single term in the North Carolina House of Representatives. He returned to politics in 1884, winning election to the North Carolina Senate from Craven County. In 1886, he was elected solicitor and prosecuting attorney for the second judicial district of North Carolina, a post he held for eight years. Though he considered running for Congress, he deferred to his brother-in-law Henry Plummer Cheatham, who was elected to the US House in 1890.

White was a delegate to the 1896 and 1900 Republican National Conventions. In 1896 he was elected to the U.S. Congress representing the predominantly black Second District from his residence in Tarboro, defeating white Democratic incumbent Frederick A. Woodard of Wilson. In 1898 White was re-elected in a three-way race. In a period of increasing disfranchisement of blacks in the South, he was the last of five African Americans in Congress during the Jim Crow era.

On January 20, 1900, White introduced the first bill in Congress to make lynching a federal crime to be prosecuted by federal courts; it died in committee. A month later, as the House was debating issues of territorial expansion, White defended his bill by giving examples of crimes in the South. Arguing that conditions in the region had to “provoke questions about …national and international policy,” he said, “Should not a nation be just to all her citizens, protect them alike in all their rights, on every foot of her soil, in a word, show herself capable of governing all within her domain before she undertakes to exercise sovereign authority over those of a foreign land—with foreign notions and habits not at all in harmony with our American system of government? Or, to be more explicit, should not charity first begin at home?”

White delivered his final speech in the House on January 29, 1901: “This is perhaps the Negroes’ temporary farewell to the American Congress, but let me say, Phoenix-like he will rise up some day and come again. These parting words are in behalf of an outraged, heart-broken, bruised and bleeding, but God-fearing people; faithful, industrious, loyal, rising people – full of potential force.”

After White left office, no other black American would serve in Congress until Oscar De Priest was elected in 1928. No African-American was elected to Congress from North Carolina until 1992.

Adapted from Wikipedia. Photo courtesy of

In the 1860 census of Columbus County: Willey F. White, 39, farmer, born Pitt County; wife M.A., 20, and children John W., 14, and W.F., 7, plus W.T. Freeman, 7.

[Sidenotes: (1) George H. White’s secretary during his Washington years was William S. Hagans, son of Napoleon Hagans and nephew of my great-great-grandmother Louvicey Artis Aldridge.  (2) My junior high school in Wilson NC was named after Frederick A. Woodard. — LYH]

Edward J. & Susan Henderson Wynn.



EDWARD JAMES WINN (1838-1922) was the son of Gray Winn and Sarah “Sallie” Greenfield Winn.  His wife, SUSAN HENDERSON WYNN (1854-1907), was the daughter of James Henderson and Louisa Armwood Henderson. They are buried in a small family cemetery near Dudley in southern Wayne County.

Photograph by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1850 census of South Side of the Neuse, Wayne County: Sally Winn, 30, and children Betsey, 14, Edw’d J., 12, Eliza, 10, Penny, 6, Ally, 4, and Washington, 1.

In the 1860 census of Westbrooks, Sampson County: James Henderson, 52, wife Eliza, 25, and children Anna J., 8, Susan, 6, Hepsie, 4, and Alexander, 1.

[Sidenote: Edward Winn’s brother, Washington Francis “Frank,” married Susan Henderson’s sister Hepsie. — LYH]

Joshua & Amelia Aldridge Brewington.


JOSHUA BREWINGTON, son of Raiford Brewington and Bathsheba Manuel Brewington, was born in 1846 in Sampson County and died in 1931 in Wayne County.  His wife, AMELIA ALDRIDGE BREWINGTON, daughter of Robert Aldridge and Mary Eliza Balkcum Aldridge, was born in 1855 in Sampson County and died in 1895 in Wayne County. They are buried in the cemetery of the First Congregational Church, Dudley, North Carolina. “Sleep on and take thy rest.”

Photo by Lisa Y. Henderson, 2010.

Jordan Harris and sons, Lewis and Andrew.

ImageImageImageJordan Harris (1822-1916) and his sons Lewis Harris (1852-1931) and Andrew Harris (1854-1932) of Wilkes County.

For more about the Harris family, see

Photos found at 

William & Pennie Winn Simmons.

ImageWILLIAM and PENNIE WINN SIMMONS. William Simmons was born about 1837 in Sampson County to James Simmons and Winnie Medlin Simmons.  Pennie Winn, born about 1844, probably in Wayne County, was the daughter of Gray Winn and Sallie Greenfield Winn.

In the 1850 census of Northern District, Sampson County: James Simmons, 52, ditcher, wife Winney, 40, and children Nancy, 17, Bryant, 15, William, 13, and Martha, 11.

In the 1850 census of South Side of the Neuse, Wayne County: Sally Winn, 30, and children Betsey, 14, Edw’d J., 12, Eliza, 10, Penny, 6, Ally, 4, and Washington, 1.

Nathan R. Brewington.

ImageNATHAN R. BREWINGTON, born 1 April 1859 in Sampson County, was the son of Raiford Brewington and Bashaba Manuel Brewington.  He married Abbie Jane Jacobs, daughter of Jesse A. Jacobs and Abigail Gilliam Jacobs, and died 11 December 1910 near Dudley, Wayne County.  He is buried in the Congregational Church cemetery there. “We loved him but Jesus loved him best.”

Photograph taken by Lisa Y. Henderson, 2010.

Frances Jacobs Carter.


FRANCES JACOBS CARTER was born about 1861 in Sampson County to Jesse Adam Jacobs (ca1820-1902) and Abigail Gilliam Jacobs (ca1820-?). She married Marshall Archie Carter (1860-1922), son of William and Mary Carter, and died in 1937 in Wayne County. Jesse A. Jacobs, Jr., was her brother.

In the 1870 census of Sampson County: Jessey Jacobs, 50, farmer; wife Abigiel, 50; and children John R., 20, Martha, 17, Soloman, 15, Jessey, 13, Abigiel J., 11, and Margett F., 9; all mulatto.

Enos & Matilda Goodman Jacobs.


ENOS JACOBS (1842-1925) and ALMIRA MATILDA GOODMAN JACOBS (1847-1927) of Sampson County. Enos was the son of Archibald Jacobs and Temperance Manuel Jacobs.  Matilda was the daughter of Timothy Goodman and Nancy Maynor Goodman.

Frances C. Aldridge Randall.


FRANCES C. “Fannie” ALDRIDGE RANDALL, born 1872 in Wayne County, married Robert H. Locust (1859-after 1930, later known as George Randall) in 1890, and died in Washington DC in 1917. She was the daughter of Robert and Mary Eliza Balkcum Aldridge, and sister of, among others, Mathew W. Aldridge and George W. Aldridge.

Photo courtesy of F.R. Randall.