Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Category: Migration

Particulars for the funeral.


Funeral bill for Anna Henderson Simmons, who died in Logansport, Cass County, Indiana, on 16 June 1906.

Anna H. Simmons was a native of Wayne County, North Carolina. Contrary to information shown in this document, her parents were James Henderson and Eliza Armwood Henderson. Anna’s husband Montraville Simmons was born in Duplin or Wayne County, North Carolina, in 1839 to John Calvin Simmons and Hepsie Whitley Simmons. The family migrated to Ontario, Canada, in the 1850s.

In the 1850 census of South Side of Neuse, Wayne County, North Carolina: farmer Calvin Simmons, 42, wife Hepsey, 46, and children Harriet, 13, Susan, 11, Montrival, 9, Jno. R., 7, Margaret, 5, Dixon, 3, and Geo. W., 1, plus Robt. Aldridge, 26, who worked as a hireling. 

In the 1860 census of Westbrooks, Sampson County, North Carolina: James Henderson, mulatto carpenter; wife Eliza; and four children, Anna J., Susan, Hepsie, and Alexander

Copy of funeral bill courtesy of Kroeger Funeral Home, Logansport, Indiana.

Life on Underwood Settlement.

“John Underwood, a “free Negro” living on a farm he owned in pre-Civil War Vigo County, took part in the dangerous work of helping fugitive slaves flee the United States to Canada as part of the “Underground Railroad.”

“On one occasion, slave catchers discovered what Underwood was doing and “were threatening to do [him] bodily harm,” according to John W. Lyda’s book, “The Negro in the History of Indiana.” But Underwood, a member of the local Masonic lodge “saved himself by giving the Masonic Recognition sign. As those who were threatening him were themselves members of that lodge, they desisted from injuring him,” Lyda wrote.

“This story is one of few that remain from what was once a thriving black settlement in Linton Township in southern Vigo County. Settled by [North Carolina-born] John Underwood in about 1841, it was one of dozens of free, black settlements in Indiana that existed many years before the Emancipation Proclamation was signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. It became known as the Underwood Settlement. …”

See Arthur Foulkes, “Life on Underwood Settlement,” Terre Haute Tribune Star, 13 February 2011.

[Hat tip to Edie Lee Harris.]

Give her of the fruit of her hands.

Lydia, daughter of Theopolis Miller Winslow, was born March 7, 1846, and died Oct. 27, 1913. When she was but a child her mother died and she was raised in a family of Friends, living with them until she was united in marriage to Parker Jones. To them were born four children, George, Mattie, William and Daniel. Three are still living, George, Mattie and Daniel, with several grandchildren and many relatives and friends to mourn their loss. William died when a child. Her husband died twelve years ago. She belonged to the A.M.E. church at Dublin, and while not a constant attendant, she carried within her breast that hidden treasure, that quiet peace, which the world knoweth not of. She was strictly honest and truthful in all her dealings. It was her greatest pleasure to make her home happy. Her children rise up and call her blessed, and her husband did praise her. Give her of the fruit of her hands and let her own works praise her in the gates.

Funeral services at the home Wednesday afternoon by the Rev. Baker, of Muncie, and Rev. Hill, the local pastor. Burial in Capital Hill.

Cambridge (Indiana) City Tribune, 30 October 1913.

Highland County, Ohio, Register of Blacks.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of the said county one of the Trustees of the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by power vested in me by Sampson Lawrence of same county , have removed to Highland County , Ohio a negro man named Smith White, dark complexion, middle size, about 27 years of age and his wife, Louisa and her child Elizabeth, all who belonged to Sampson Lawrence above named, Louisa about 20 years of age. That these persons ave been manumitted to manage themselves. 12th day, 10th month, 1825. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan Hunt. Rec. 7-15-1836, Highland Co., Ohio.

In the 1840 census of Fairfield, Highland County, Ohio: Smith White is head of a household that includes one male aged 24-35, one male under 10, one female aged 55-100, one female aged 24-25 and three females under 10; all free persons of color. Per, Smith White died 26 April 1849 and is buried in Fairfield Quaker cemetery, Leesburg, Highland County.

Jane White, Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state as agent or trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina and by authority vested in me, manumit and set free a negro woman, Jane, dark complexion, about 49 years of age and her daughter, Louisa about same colour, aged 20 years, and her son, Bartlet about 10 years old. Also Louisa’s John. That they are now in Highland County, Ohio having left this county in 1834 under control of Thaddeus White and William Nixon, dated 13th day, 10th month, 1835.  /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan hunt. Recorded 7-15-1836 Highland Co., Ohio.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state, agent or trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by authority vested in me, do manumit and set free a woman of colour named Winney Lamb and her three children: Elizabeth, Thomas and Louisa; also, Theophelus Winslow now in Wayne County, Indiana, he is about 27 years old, 6 feet high, tolerably dark complexion and is the son of Betty Winslow of Highland County, Ohio. Said Winney Lamb is a low woman of yellow complexion about 42 years old and with her children are now in Highland County, Ohio. That they left this state in 1834 under the care of Thaddeus White and William Nixon, dated 13th of 10th month, 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan Hunt. Recorded 7-15-1836 Highand Co., Ohio.

In the 1840 census of Washington, Wayne County, Indiana, Theophilus Winslow headed a household of two persons of color. On 20 August 1838, he received a land grant of 80 acres in Wayne County, Indiana. On 4 November 1838, he married Milly Anderson in Wayne County. Records show that he was a member of Milford Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends. In the 1850 census of Washington, Wayne County, Indiana: 40 year-old North Carolina-born farm Theophilus Winslow, wife Milly, 40, and daughter Lydia, 6. In the 1880 census of Dublin, Wayne County, Indiana: Theophilus Winslow, 72, wife Martha, 64, and “friend” Harriet Wallace, 70.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state, as agent or trustee of the North Carolina Friends Yearly Meeting  and by power as their agent, have removed to Highland County, Ohio, a negro woman, Edith Rutcliff, aged about 40 years and her son, Amzel, commonly called Amzel Watkins aged 20 years, middle size swings himself greatly when he walks, have manumitted these persons with full liberty to do for themselves. 12th of 10th month, 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan hunt. Rec. 7-15-1836.

Possibly, Amzel Watkins, 1113 Ohio, who is listed in the 1865 edition of Gopsill’s Pennsylvania State Business Directory as a variety store owner in Philadelphia.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state as agent or trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by power as their agent manumit and set free the following people of colour now in Highland County, Ohio, namely: Betty Winslow aged about 50 years, her sons: Joseph Winslow, Robinson, Henry, Alfred and John and daughter Mary Ann, they having left this state in 1834 under the care of Thaddeus White and Wm Nixon. Said Joseph is about 24 years, very dark in colour, middle size. Robinson is of middle size, of dark complexion and 22 years old. Henry is tall, then and yellow complexion, about 20 years of age. Alfred is about 15 years of age. John is about 8 years old and Mary Ann is about 14 years old. Dated this 13th day of 10th month 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan hunt. Rec. 7-14-1836.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state as agent and trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by power as their agent have removed to Highland County, Ohio, a certain negro woman named Patience the wife of Daniel White and their five children — Nancy, Wiley, Smith, Peter and Mary; also, the above named Daniel White whom I bought of Jonathan White of Perquimans Co., North Carolina and do manumit all said persons from slavery. Daniel White is aged about 35 years, yellow complexion and a stout make; his wife, Patience, is about 30 years of age and a shade darker than her husband, 12th of 10th month, 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan Hunt. Rec. 7-15-1836.

That Robert Peele and Thomas I. Outland of Northampton County, North Carolina being legally authorized and empowered by trustees of the yearly meeting of the Society of Friends of North Carolina take charge and convey to the State of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, Turner Peele together with a number of other colored people held by said trustees, said Robert Peele and Thomas I. Outland having removed and placed said Turner Peele together with a number of others in Highland County, Ohio and that said Turner Peele is a free man, dated this 1st day of 12th month, 1836. Recorded 8-11-1837.

In the 1850 census of Fairfield, Highland County, Ohio: 37 year-old North Carolina-born Turner Peal and wife Julia A. Peal, 27. In the 1870 census of same: Turner Peal, 57, wife Julia A., 45, and children Minover, 22, and Edward P., 16, plus James Hays, 10, and Laura West, 3.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. Before me, Jonah Perry one of the Justices of the Peace for said county came Nathan Winslow and deposeth that he knew Harrison Winslow a man of color of said county to be free born about 21 years of age, rather of a dark complexion, 5 feet 6 inches high with a small scar over the right eye. Dated 10th January 1838. Recorded 1-2-1842.

Highland County, Ohio. Personally appeared before me Augustus Brown a Justice of the Peace for said county, John Bolt who saith that he was well acquainted with Jerry Oldham and Asa, his son, both men of color in the state of North Carolina and that they were the property of his father, Charles Bolt, and that they gave him their freedom and they have been set free from Nov. 28, 1826 as by certificate, dated Jan. 17, 1840. Certificate: This is to certify that I have the negroes Jerry and Asa Oldham liberty to go with my son, William, to Ohio, dated Nov. 28, 1826. /s/ Charles Bolt. Rec. 2-28-1840.

Jeremiah Oldham is listed as a head of household in the 1830 and 1840 censuses of Fairfield, Highland County, Ohio. In the 1850 census of Wayne, Clinton County, Ohio: Virginia-born Asa Oldham, 30, with children Elizabeth J., 5, and Andrew, 2. In the 1900 census of Van Buren, Shelby County, Ohio: 80 year-old widower Asa Oldham and boarder John Powell, 41.

Highland County, Ohio. Leesburgh. That Samuel White and Ormond White by power of attorney executed to them by David White of Perquimans County, North Carolina and Joseph Parker of Pasquotank County, North Carolina trustees of the yearly meeting of the Society of Friends, brought and set at liberty, Luke Wislow and Levina his wife to enjoy freedom of the state of Ohio as may appear more fully by records of Henry County, Indiana, where the power of attorney is recorded, dated this 12th day, 10th month, 1841.


Register of Blacks, Highland County, Ohio, Office of Clerk of Court, Hillsboro, Highland County, Ohio; federal population schedules; U.S. General Land Office Records, 1796-1907 [database on-line],; Men’s Minutes, 1845-1864, Indiana Yearly Meeting Minutes Collection, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana (U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935 [database on-line],

The Chubbs of Chubbtown.

The history of the Chubb Chapel, and in fact Chubbtown itself, must be seen in the context of the Chubb family and its struggle first to escape slavery and then as a rare, free-black family to migrate seeking better opportunities, as did most of its free white contemporaries.

The history of the Chubb family in North America dates back at least to 1775. Nicholas Chubb is listed a free colored male, head of a household on the 1820 census of Caswell County, North Carolina. His age is listed as 45 years or older, which means that Nicholas Chubb probably was not born later than 1775, whether he was born free, or in slavery is not known. If born a slave, it is not yet known when or under what circumstances he was freed.

Isaac Chubb, born about 1797 in North Carolina, is presumed to be one of Nicholas Chubb’s sons. Isaac appeared as a free black in the 1830 Census of Caswell County, North Carolina and shortly thereafter migrated to north Georgia before 1833 when his first child is recorded as having been born in Georgia. It is important to note that Isaac Chubb, a free black male, migrated with his family to Georgia, a slave state, rather than to a northern free state. Isaac Chubb, who was a blacksmith by profession, apparently was successful enough in his profession to keep his family together. In 1850, Isaac and his family were living in Morgan County, Georgia.

In 1850, Georgia’s population was just over 906,000 people with just over 381,000 being slave, and 521,000 free whites. Only 2,931 were listed as free blacks, and of these 16 were recorded living in Morgan County. Of these 16, 10 were Isaac Chubb and family. The only large congregation of free blacks in the state were in the larger cities of Savannah, Augusta, Macon, and Columbus.

By 1860, Georgia’s total population had risen to 1,057,000 or so, with whites making up 591,000 or so, while the slave population had grown to over 462,000. The free black total had grown to 3500 exactly.

While the 1860 Census does not reflect the exact whereabouts of the Chubb family, it would appear that they were already in Floyd County. The free black residents of Morgan County totalled 16 in 1850 (of which 10 were Isaac and family) and only 7 in 1860, for a loss of 9. Floyd County, on the other hand, had only 4 free blacks in 1850 but had gained 9 for a total of 13 in 1860.

Isaac Chubb and his eight sons (William, Henry, John, Thomas, Jacob, Isaac, Jr., Nicholas and George) thus arrived at, or were subsequently born in, Floyd County, Georgia, by the early 1860s. Neither research nor family tradition has indicated any reason for this northwesterly move. The older sons soon began purchasing real estate before the end of the Civil War. Henry Chubb purchased 120 acres in 1864 before the end of the war.

The 1870 census of Floyd County, Georgia, reflects that Isaac was dead and Henry was head of the family. The census lists the various occupations of the brothers as blacksmith, wagon maker, house carpenter, sawmill operator and the rest farmers. Apparently, these varied talents enabled the Chubb brothers to prosper.

Chubb Chapel United Methodist Church was established in a community that most probably was one of a kind, one that was established and owned by blacks before the turn of the century in the United States.

Legend has it that the community in which Chubb Chapel United Methodist Church is located was once inhabited by the Cherokee Indians before they were forced to relocate during the winter of 1838-1939.

In an undated deed recorded on August 8, 1870, “Henry Chubb and brothers, of town of Cave Spring” conveyed for $200 approximately one acre of land “at Chubbs” to the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with “a house now situated on said lot and occupied as a school and a place of religious worship by the colored people.” Henry Chubb, one of the Chubb Brothers, was one of the original trustees.

Although William Chubb was the oldest son of Isaac Chubb, Sr. as shown on the census, Henry Chubb seems to have taken on the role as head of the Chubb family in Floyd County. The wording of the church deed, Henry’s inclusion as the sole Chubb family member as one of the trustees and his listing in the 1870 census support the tradition that Henry Chubb had become head of the Chubb family in Floyd County by 1870.

During the Post-Reconstruction period the Chubb brothers continued purchasing real estate. Their real estate holdings became a self- sufficient community known as Chubbtown. Chubbtown provided goods and services to white and black residents of the surrounding areas.

Chubbtown was indeed a self-sufficient community. The community, which was serviced by its own post office, was composed of a general store, blacksmith shop, grist mill, distillery, syrup mill, saw mill, wagon company, cotton gin, casket (coffin) company and several farms, all owned and operated by the Chubb family.

The Chubb family remained and prospered in Floyd County, Georgia, while many southern blacks were seeking prosperity in the north. The family’s prosperity declined around the 1940s when a flood destroyed many of the family’s businesses.

By the 1870 census, Henry Chubb had acquired considerable property as an individual, separate from the family’s holdings. Perhaps this is the reason that he became the head of the family.

In the county’s first official county history, A History of Rome and Floyd County, written by George M. Battey, Jr., and published in 1922, the family and its community even attracted the attention of the white community of Floyd County, as seen by the following reference to the family in the encyclopedic section under the heading “Darkeys of Rome, Old-Time”: “Chubb Family: These darkeys were farmers around Chubbtown, near Cave Spring and the Polk County line, whose industry and thrift enabled them to accumulate considerable property, gins, mills, houses, etc. They were law-abiding, respected by the whites and generally good citizens. Their master set them free before the Civil War.”

Although the reference to the Chubbs as “darkeys” certainly will not amuse the current descendants of the Chubb brothers, the reference must be put in its proper historic context. They were the only black family discussed, all the other entries were individuals. The history was published in 1922, when far more insulting words were used to describe blacks. What is far more important to note is that Chubbtown, a community established by blacks, had gained such respect and prominence that it could not be ignored by the white author. As in all Georgia county histories of the era, blacks were relegated to only brief mentions, or appendices, even though in many counties they had long constituted a major percentage of the population.

Perhaps the descendants of the Chubb brothers will not find the following reference to Chubbtown, from the same history, as offensive as the preceding one:

“Chubbtown is a settlement of prosperous and respectable negroes four miles southeast of Cave Spring at the Polk County line.” (p. 397)

The Chubb brothers and Chubbtown certainly had received some recognition by the 1920s. Unfortunately, by 1940 all of the Chubb brothers had died; however, their dreams and lives lived on through their children. The Chubb brothers (William, Henry, John, Thomas, Jacob, Isaac, Nicholas and George) along with many of their children and other descendants are buried in the Chubb Cemetery, located on land donated by the Chubb and Jones families in Chubbtown.

Although the community that the Chubb brothers established is no longer a self-sufficient town and is no longer exclusively owned by members of the Chubb family, it continues to bear the name Chubbtown, and is recognized as such on the U.S.G.S. topographic map, Cedartown West Quadrangle.

The church that the Chubb brothers helped establish in August 1870 stands today and is still operating as a church and is now known as Chubb Chapel United Methodist Church. It is the only historic building dating from the period of Chubbtown’s historic development.

From the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form for Chubb Methodist Episcopal Church, Cave Spring, Georgia.

[Sidenote: Arguably, the most famous Chubb is patriarch Nicholas’ namesake, Georgia Bulldog running back Nick Chubb. See this ESPN video about the Chubbtown legacy.]

His half-brother — and owner — are free men of color.


RANAWAY from the Subscriber, on the 19th inst., a Negro man named LUKE, about five feet six or eight inches high, dark complected, has a scar on the side of one of his eyes, (which one not recollected, but believed to be the right eye,) stout built, weighs about 175 or 180 pounds.

He was purchased in 1846 from Mr. Josiah E. Bryan of this town. He has relatives in the County of Sampson, among them a half-brother named Sam Boon, — a free man of color, — and may possibly be lurking in that neighborhood, as I am informed he was seen about there a short time since. Possibly he may have obtained free papers, and is endevouring to escape to a free State, as I understand some free persons of color removed from Sampson county last week to Indiana.

A reward of Ten Dollars will be given for his apprehension and delivery to me, if taken in this county; Fifteen Dollars if taken in any other county in this State and lodged in a safe Jail; or Fifty Dollars if taken out of state — so that I get him again.  M.N. LEARY.

Fayetteville, March 29, 1853.

Fayetteville Observer, 7 April 1853.


Mixed blooded almost white.


“The Free negroes in this County are mixed blooded almost white and have intermarried with a low class of whites_ Have no trade occupation or profession they live in a settlement of Town of their own their personal property consists of Cattle & Hogs, They make no produce except corn peas & Potatoes & very little of that.

They are a lazy Indolent & worthless race.”

[Note: I have not found North Carolina-born Paschal Loftis in any other census, but unsourced internet information lists his parents as Martin Loftis and Phereba Paschall, who married in Warren County in 1790. Also, according to Sewell and Hill’s The Indians of North Florida: From Carolina to Florida, the Story of a Distinct American Indian Community, the settlement was called Scott’s Ferry, and its inhabitants were Apalachicola Catawba. Hat tip to Finding African American Ancestors for bringing my attention to this census entry. — LYH]


Sailing for Liberia.

FOR LIBERIA. – We learn from an Agent of the Colonization Society, now here, that a vessel will sail on the 20th Nov. from Wilmington, for Liberia, and that about 80 free colored people from this place and neighborhood, intend to take passage in her. – Fayetteville Observer.

Republican and Patriot (Goldsboro), 26 October 1852.

Sold for the crime of immigration.

On Monday last, we witnessed the novel spectacle of selling a free negro, Howell Thomas, who was condemned at our last Court, to be sold for ten years, for the “crime” of emigrating to this State from “old Figinny,” was put up to the highest bidder, according to law, and was knocked down at the moderate price of fifty-two dollars – “dog cheap!” – Oxford Exam.

North Carolina Free Press (Halifax), 19 June 1832.

They are non-residents.

State of North Carolina,


Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions,


Obedience Lassiter vs. Silas Lassiter

Morrison Artis and wife Sally

and others,

Petition for Dower.

IT appearing to the satisfaction of the Court, that Morrison Artis and his wife Sally are non-residents of this State: It is ordered by the Court that publication be made in The Southerner, for six weeks, notifying them to appear at the Court House in Tarboro’, on the fourth Monday of November next, then and there to answer said petition, or the same will be taken pro confesso and heard ex parte as to them.

Witness, W.S. Pitt, Clerk of said Court, at office, the fourth Monday of August, A.D. 1853. W.S. PITT, Clk.

The Southerner (Tarboro), 5 November 1853.


The Lassiters and Artises were heirs of Hardy Lassiter.