Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Category: Photographs

James L. & Bettie Johnson Mozingo.

ImageJAMES LODY MOZINGO was born about 1862 in Cumberland County to Wiley Mozingo (ca1830-ca1915) and Agnes Allen Mozingo (ca1840-1923). His wife Bettie Johnson Mozingo was born around 1873 in Johnston County to Stephen Johnson (1838-1914) and Mary Sasser Johnson (1845-??).

In the 1860 census of Cumberland, Cumberland County: Wiley Mozingo, 25, wife Agus, 20, and children S.E., 4, Mary C., 3, and Lavina, one month. The censustaker noted that S.E. and Mary had red hair.

Susan Mozingo Ward Lewis.

ImageSUSAN MOZINGO WARD LEWIS (1809-1860), great-great-granddaughter of Edward Mozingo, an African indentured servant in 17th-century Richmond County, Virginia. Susan was born in Wayne County to Sarah “Sally” Mozingo and died in Georgia.

Photo courtesy of Melicent Remy.

[Sidenote: Edward Mozingo, “a negro man,” successfully sued for his freedom in 1672.  DNA testing of his patrilineal descendants has confirmed his African origin, but by the late 18th century, many if not most of his descendants were considered white. For a fascinating exploration of the Mozingo family, see Joe Mozingo, Fiddler on Pantico Run: An African Warrior, His White Descendants, a Search for Family. — LYH]

Master craftsman.

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1. Thomas Day’s cutouts and molding liven up a front porch. 1860, Garland-Buford House, North Carolina. Photo by Tim Buchman, 2013.

2. Day did architectural work inside clients’ home, adding his flourish to facades, staircases and archways. Newel, 1855, Glass-Dameron House, North Carolina. Photo by Tim Buchman, 2013.

3. Day’s uniquely “Exuberant Style” in full bloom. Whatnot, 1853-1860. Collection of Margaret Walker Brunson Hill, courtesy of the Renwick Gallery.


John Jones.

ImageJohn Jones was an outspoken civil rights activist and a committed leader in the fight to repeal Illinois’ Black Codes. He was born in Greene County, North Carolina to a free mulatto mother and a German-American father. Trained as a tailor, Jones migrated to Memphis, Tennessee, then moved to Chicago in 1845 with his wife Mary Richardson Jones.  He established a successful tailor shop at 119 Dearborn Street. Not long after his arrival in Chicago, Jones befriended local abolitionists Charles V. Dyer, a physician, and Lemanuel Covell Paine Freer, a noted lawyer. Freer taught Jones to read and write. Jones saw the value of the skills for business and also put them to masterful use in abolition work, including the publication of a 16-page pamphlet entitled “The Black Laws of Illinois and Why They Should Be Repealed.” Jones also worked tirelessly in the struggle against the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which denied runaway slaves the right to trial by jury and imposed high fines on anyone who aided slaves or interfered in their capture. Though he arrived in the city with just $3.50 in his pocket and had no formal education, by 1860 Jones was one of the nation’s wealthiest African Americans. In 1871, Jones was elected the first black Cook County Commissioner.


John Jones’ 1844 certificate of freedom, issued by the State of Illinois, described him as 25 years old; 5 feet ten inches tall, and mulatto; “has a scarr over the Left Eye Brown a Scratch across the cheek bone a scarr on the left Shin bone Taylor to trade.”

Photo: Chicago History Museum. Text adapted from “Early Chicago: Slavery in Illinois,”,4,3,4; see also, and more particularly, Sylvestre C. Watkins, Sr., “Some of Early Illinois’ Free Negroes” in Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 56, no. 3, Emancipation Centennial Issue (1963); 

In the 1860 census of Ward 2, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois: John Jones, 43, tailor, born NC; wife Mary, 40, born Tennessee; daughter Susan, 16, born Illinois; and Rachel Pettit, 20, born Illinois. Jones reported real property valued at $17000 and personal property at $700.

Charles & Frances Wynn.

ImageCHARLES WYNN was born about 1842, probably in northern Duplin or southern Wayne County, to Levi Wynn and his wife, Bertha. FRANCES ALDRIDGE WYNN, probably born in southern Wayne County, was the daughter of John Matthew Aldridge and Catherine Boseman (or Simmons) Aldridge. They are buried in the cemetery of First Congregational Church, Dudley, Wayne County.

Photo taken by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

Marshall A. Carter.

ImageMARSHALL ARCHIE CARTER (or, perhaps, Archie or Archibald Marshall Carter, though his initials are shown as “M.C.” above) was born in 1860 to William Carter (1833-ca1875) and Mary Cox Carter (ca1830-??) of Sampson County. His father William was the son of Michael Carter (1805-ca1875) and his wife Patience.  Marshall Carter married Margaret Frances Jacobs.  They are buried in the First Congregational Church, Dudley, Wayne County.

Photo taken by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1860 census of Clinton, Sampson County: Wm. Carter, 26, farmer; wife Mary, 34; and children Cornelia, 12, Francenia, 6, Thos. G., 5, Sarah J., 2, and Archibald, 7 months.  Next door: Michael Carter, 57, and wife Patience, 47. All mulatto. [A duplicate listing in Piney Grove, Sampson County: William Carter, 27, turpentine laborer; wife Mary, 27; and children Cornelia, 12, Francenia, 6, Isaaih T., 4, Sarah J., 2, and Archy M., 6 months.]

This death certificate was filed in Wayne County: Marshall Carter. Died 11 July 1922, Dudley, Brogden, Wayne County. Colored. Farmer. Married to Frances Carter. Born 7 July 1860, Duplin County, to William Carter and Mary [last name unknown.] Buried in Dudley. Informant, Milford Carter, Mount Olive NC.

Mary B. Greenfield.

ImageMARY B. GREENFIELD was the daughter of Johnson and Harriet Smith Greenfield. She is buried in the Budd cemetery near Dudley, Wayne County.

Photo taken by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1860 census of Indian Springs, Wayne County: Johnson Greenfield, 52, farmer, wife Harriet, 36, and children Budd, 15, Ingram, 11, Giles, 9, Luther, 6, Dellelo, 4, Mary, 2, George, 2, and Marshal, 4 months.

Jesse Jacobs.


JESSE ADAMS JACOBS (1817-1902) was born in Sampson or Cumberland County. His parentage is unclear. Circa 1845, he married Abigail Gilliam, who may have been white. The family lived in the Honeycutts area of Sampson County until the 1880s, when they migrated a few miles north to Dudley, Wayne County. Their children were: James Edward Jacobs, Elizabeth A. Jacobs Maynor, John R. Jacobs, Martha Jacobs, Solomon Jacobs, Jesse Adams Jacobs Jr., Abigail Jane Jacobs Brewington, and Margaret Frances Jacobs Carter.  Jesse is buried in the cemetery of the First Congregational Church in Dudley. “May the resurrection find thee on the bosom of thy God.”

Photo taken by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

Levi & Betsy Winn.

Image LEVI WINN was probably born in northern Duplin County. Elizabeth, called “Betsy,” last name unknown, was his second wife. They are buried at First Congregational Church in Dudley, Wayne County.

Photo by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1860 census of Buck Swamp, Wayne County: Levi Winn, 47, blacksmith, wife Elizabeth, 39, and children Henry, 21, David, 20, Pinkney, 19, George, 17, Charles, 15, Mary, 13, Martha, 11, John, 9, Elizabeth, 7, Susan, 5, and Levi, 3.

Riley B. Simmons.

ImageRILEY B. SIMMONS was born 4 August 1841 in Duplin or Wayne County to George W. Simmons and Axey Jane Manuel Simmons.  He married  Penny Bryant in 1864; Matilda Graham in 1895; and Tempsey Locus Boseman in 1914; all in Wayne County.  He died 11 July 1924 and is buried in the First Congregational Church cemetery in Dudley, Wayne County.

Photograph by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1860 census of Indian Springs, Wayne County: George Simmons, 40, wife Axey J, 38, and children Riley B., 19, Simon, 15, Susan A., 17, George R., 13, Zack, 10, Silvania, 9, Bryant, 7, H.B., 5, and Gen., 2. 

In the 1860 census of Indian Springs, Wayne County: Sally Bryant, 40, Penny, 18, Rich’d, 14, and Caroline Bryant, 10. Sally was white; her children, mulatto.

In the 1850 census of Nash County: Rachel Locust, 29, and daughters Sarah, 10, Tincy, 6, and Tilda, 2.

Artimpsey Locus married James Boseman in Nash County on 11 February 1863.  In the 1860 census of Buck Swamp, Wayne County: Matthew Aldridge, 50, wife Catharine, 28, and children William, 10, John H., 16, Frances, 7, Delia, 3, and Mary A., 1, plus James Bosmon, 20, who was probably Catharine’s brother.