Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Month: February, 2013

Matthew Artis Post No. 341, G.A.R.

Matthew Artis Post, No. 341, was organized at Day March 10, 1866, with twenty-one members, as follows:

Commander, Bishop E. Curtis; Senior Vice Commander, Henry D. Stewart; Junior Vice Commander, James Monroe; Adjutant, Abner R. Bird; Quartermaster, Solomon Griffin; Surgeon, Harrison Griffin; Chaplain George Scott; Officer of Day, Zachariah Pompey; Officer of Guard, John Copley; Sergeant Major, James M. Stewart; Quartermaster Sergeant, James H. Ford. Members: Peter Saunders, Caswell Oxendine, Berry Haithcock, John Curry, Samuel Wells, John Brown, Martin Harris, Andrew Gillum, George Broairdy, L.B. Stewart. …

From L.H. Glover, A Twentieth Century History of Cass County, Michigan (1906).

In the 1850 Perry, Logan County, Ohio: Elisha Bird, 60, farmer, Sarah, 60, Nancy, 36, Mary A., 15, James, 20, Lawson, 17, Abner, 8, and John Bird, 23. Elisha, Sarah and Mary were born in Virginia; Nancy and John Bird in NC; and James, Lawson and Abner Bird in Ohio. In the 1860 census of Calvin, Cass County, Michigan: Wyatt Byrd, 37, wife Charlott, 32, and children Mary J., 10, Leander, 6, Eliza A., 3, Sarah J., 2, and Abner, 15. Wyatt was born in NC; Charlotte in Virginia; and their children in Michigan, except Abner, Ohio.

In the 1850 census of Frankfort, Clinton County, Indiana: Peter Copley, 40, wife Delila, 34, and children Elius A., 12, John A., 10, Mary M., 10, William C., 8, Caroline M., 7, Martha J., 6, Delily E., 4, and Matilda C., 1.  All born in NC, except the three youngest children, who were born in Indiana.  In the 1860 census of Porter, Cass County, Michigan: Peter Copley, 52, farmer, wife Delia, 44, and children John, 22, Wm., 17, Calvin, 16, Jane, 15, Elizabeth, 12, and Matilda, 10. All born in NC, except the three youngest children, who were born in Indiana.

In the 1850 census of Fugit, Decatur County, Indiana: Sally Hunt, 55, Celia Hunt, 22, Susan Hunt, 2, Levi Hunt, 1, Wiley Jones, 14, Jordon Jones, 12, Flora Oxendine, 10, Parmelia Oxendine, 6, and Caswell Oxendine, 4.  All born in NC except Levi Hunt, who was born in Indiana. In the 1860 census of Calvin, Cass, Michigan: Isaac Hunt, 36, wife Dorcas, 40, children Drusilla, 13, Susan, 10, Mary, 10, and Roxa A. Hunt, 6, plus C. Oxendine, 15.

Caswell Oxendine. Died 3 May 1914, Dowagiac, Cass County Michigan. Colored. Married. Farmer. Born 4 March 1844 in NC to unknown parents. Buried Calvin Center. Informant, Mrs. Oxendine.

In the 1850 census of Xenia, Greene County, Ohio: Berry Heathcock, 45, farmer, wife Fanny, 43, and William Lilly, 10, James A. Lilley, 8, Isaiah Lilley, 6, and Moses Daniel, 25, all born in NC. In the 1860 census of Burr Oak, Saint Joseph County, Michigan: Berry Hathcock, 35, born Ohio, in the household of Geo. Boyles, farmer.

Berry Haithcox. Died 16 March 1904, Porter, Cass County, Michigan. Married 15 years. 3 children, all living. Born 1825 in North Carolina to Mills Haithcox and Sarrah Byrd. Buried at Mount Zion. Informant, Roberta Haithcock, Vandalia.

In the 1850 census of Fugit, Decatur, Indiana: Arthur Gillam, 26, laborer, Margaret, 36, Harriet Bowden, 16, Mary Bowden, 14, Jackson Bowden, 11, Higgins Bowden, 10, John Bowden, 7, and Andrew Gillam, 4.  All born in NC, except Andrew and the two youngest Bowden children. In the 1860 census of Liberty, Union County, Indiana; Auther Gillam, 36, laborer, wife Margaret, 47, Mary Borden, 22, servant, Jackson Bowden, 20, laborer, Andrew Agillam, 13, and Taylor Gillam, 3, all classified as Indian. All were born in NC except Auther and Andrew, born in Indiana. 

Wayne County Apprentices, 1807-1820.

Bennett Artis was bound to John Woodard in 1807.

Jonathan Artis, age 4, was bound to James Sparkman as a shoemaker in 1807.

Possibly Jonathan Artis, aged 24-36, head of a household of six free people of color in the 1840 census of Fayetteville, Cumberland, 1840.

Abram Johnston was bound to Joel Newsom in 1807.

Haywood Hagans was bound to Thos. Broadstreet in 1807.

Patience Hedgman was bound to James Reasons in 1812.

Welthy [no last name], age 15, and Ned [no last name], age 4, were bound to Stephen Woodard in 1820.

Kinnard Samson, age 7, Liza Samson, age 12, and Jere Samson, age 2, were bound to Stephen Woodard in 1820.

“Jere Samson” is possibly Jesse Sampson, 35, day laborer, with wife Mary, 30, and children Caswell, 10, Martha, 8, Elizabeth, 6, Temda, 4, and Gabriel, 6 months, listed in the 1850 census of North Side of Neuse, Wayne County. 

Rufus Seeberry, age 6, and James Madison Seeberry, age 8, were bound to Henry Best in 1820.

In the 1860 census of Neuse River, Johnston County: Rufus Ceberry, 43, miller, wife Dolly, 40, and children Nicy, 22, Willis, 21, Susanna, 19, John, 17, Polly, 15, Eliza, 12, Malena, 9, Melvina, 5, and Hanibal, 4.

Apprentice Records, Wayne County Records, North Carolina State Archives.

Sold for taxes, redux.

No. 471. An Act for the relief of John Montgomery and William A. Lewis, of Forsyth County; Nancy Going, Adaline Page, Thursday, Isabella, De la Fayette, and Elmira, free persons of color, of the County of Columbia, and for other purposes therein specified.

WHEREAS, Bryant Oxendine, a free person of color, was taken up for failing to comply with the Registration Laws of this State, in the year 1850, and was found guilty and fined by the Inferior Court of Forsyth County one hundred dollars, and being unable to pay the fine was hired out, under the Laws of this State, for a term of eighteen months, for the price of one hundred dollars, to John Montgomery, on the 5th day of December, 1850, and the said John Montgomery gave his note due eighteen months after date, to the Justices of the Inferior Court of Forsyth County, for the sum of one hundred dollars, with William A. Lewis as security for the same. And,

WHEREAS, The said Bryant Oxendine ran away on the 28th day of August, 1851, and therefore failed to perform the service for the time for which he was hired.

SECTION I. Be it therefore enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Georgia in the General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That the said John Montgomery and WIlliam A. Lewis be relieved, discharged and acquitted from the payment of so much of the said note, in proportion, as the service aforesaid was not performed, to wit: the sum of fifty-five dollars.

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1853-4 (1854).

He was ignorant of his right.

59th CONGRESS, 1st Session}  SENATE. {DOCUMENT No. 471.

[Court of Claims. Congressional, No. 11397. Hardy A. Brewington, administrator of the estate of Raiford Brewington, deceased, v. The United States.]


Senate Bill 4292, reading as follows, was introduced on February 10, 1904, and was referred to this court on April 28, 1904, by resolution of the Senate for findings of fact under the terms of section 14 of the act approved March 3, 1887, and commonly known as the Tucker Act.


  1. Claimant’s decedent, Raiford Brewington, was a free colored man, residing during the late civil war in Sampson County, N.C., and throughout said war he remained loyal to the United States Government.
  2. During said war the United States military forces, under proper authority, took from claimant’s decedent, in Sampson County, N.C., for the use of the Army, quartermaster stores and commissary supplies of the kinds described in the petition, which at the time and place of taking were reasonably worth the sum of five hundred and thirty dollars ($530.) No payment appears to have been made for said property of any part thereof.
  3. It appears from the evidence that claimants decedent was a colored man, who was ignorant of his right to present a claim to the Claims Commission established by the act approved March 3, 1871, during the two years allowed by law for filing of claims before said Commission. There was no other opportunity for presentation of this claim save by petition to Congress. These facts are reported as bearing upon the question  of whether there has been delay or laches in the presentation of said claim.    By the Court.

Filed May 14, 1906.

A true copy: Test this 32st day of May, 1906 [seal.]      John Randolph, Assistant Clerk Court of Claims

United States Congressional Serial Set, Issue 4916, p. 41.

He is carrying a dead man’s free papers.

$30 REWARD. – I will give the above reward of Thirty Dollars to any person who will apprehend and deliver to me, or confine in jail so that I can get him, my negro man TOM, who ran away from me about the 9th of February last. TOM is about forty-two or forty-three years old, about five feet five or six inches high, rather light built, of light complexion, almost of the Indian order, lank or hollow jawed, wears his hair combed up in front, when spoken to has a down look, no particular mark recollected, except a scar from a severe cut on his right fore finger. It is believed he has with him Free Papers belonging to James Lucas or Locust, who froze to death in January last in the neighborhood; since which his Free Papers have not been found or heard of; and I have no doubt TOM is now passing himself as James Lucas or Locust as a free man. I have reason to believe that he is occasionally lurking about Louisburg, as I bought him of Mr. JOSIAH BRIDGES of that vicinity.

All persons are cautioned against employing, harboring, carrying away, or assisting him to get away, as the law will in every case be rigidly enforced.  RICHARD SHORT.

Vicksville P.O., Nash county, N.C. August 21, 1839.

North Carolina Standard, Raleigh, 4 September 1839.

United States Colored Troops, no. 9.

37 U.S.C.T. Edmond T. Jones. Co. T, 35 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age, 19 years; height, 5 feet 10 inches; complexion, black; eyes, black; hair, black; where born, Franklin County, NC; occupation, laborer. Enlistment: when, 1 December  1863; where, Norfolk VA; by whom, A.P. Smith; term, 3 years. Remarks: free before April 19, 1861; mustered out Brazos, Santiago, Texas, 4 Feb 1866.

In the 1860 census of Galloways, Franklin County: Chesley Jones, 29, ditcher, wife Kersiah, 24, and children Georgianna, 7, Joshua, 6, Joseph, 5, Martha, 3, and Major, 2, plus Edmond Jones, 21, ditcher.

15 U.S.C.T. Ephraim Anderson. Co. D, 15 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age, 37 years; height, 5 feet 7 inches; complexion, light; eyes, blue; hair, dark; where born, Granville County, NC; occupation, carpenter. Enlistment: when, 29 September 1864; where, Columbus, Ohio; by whom, Capt. Ben. Nesbitt; term, 1 year.

In the 1860 census of Dutch, Granville County: Ephraim Aanderson, 32, day laborer, John Curtis, 35, day laborer, and Alex Mitchell, 25, farmer, in the household of Jesse Oakley, farmer.

15 U.S.C.T. Lindsey Anderson. Co. D, 15 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age, 30 years; height, 5 feet 8 inches; complexion, dark; eyes, hazel; hair, black; where born, Granville County, NC; occupation, laborer. Enlistment: when, 29 September 1864; where, Columbus, Ohio; by whom, Lt. Wheaton; term, 1 year; remarks: mustered same as enlistment, discharged by reason of expiration of service 29 September 1865.

In the 1860 census of Oxford, Granville County: Linsey Anderson, 32, farmer, wife Polly, 25, and children Polly, 6, and Sarah, 4.

27 U.S.C.T. Thomas H. Evans. Co. D, 27 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age, 36 years; height, 5 feet 8 inches; complexion, dark; eyes, black; hair, black; where born, Granville County, NC; occupation, laborer. Enlistment: when, 27 February 1864; where, Delaware County, Ohio; by whom, G. St. Clair; term, 3 years; remarks: discharged 7 October 1864, mustered 8 March 1864 at Camp Delaware O by Capt. Bond.

In the 1860 census of Nutbush, Granville County: D. Stewart, 16, James Stewart, 8, Nancy Stewart, 6, Thomas Evans, 35, and D. A. Marrow, 26, all mulatto except Marrow, who was white. 

They built a school for themselves.

Prior to 1835 these people claim to have attended the schools of the whites. In 1859 they built a school for themselves, which was taught by Alvin Manuel, a Croatan. After the War they were given a public school in this community, but the effort to force the attendance of children of negro blood in this school brought on friction and finally resulted in the withdrawal of county support and disrupted the school.

From George E. Butler, “The Croatan Indians of Sampson County, North Carolina. Their Origin and Racial Status. A Plea for Separate Schools,” (1916).

Michael Alvin Manuel was born about 1837 in Sampson County and died in 1922 in Wayne County.

In the 1850 census of Northern District, Sampson County: Michael Manuel, 63, cooper; wife Fereby, 49; and children Gideon, 19, Cintilla, 16, Drusilla, 15, Michael, 13, Eden, 11, John, 9, William, 7, Enoch, 4, and Nancy, 1; all described as mulatto.

Jordan Harris and sons, Lewis and Andrew.

ImageImageImageJordan Harris (1822-1916) and his sons Lewis Harris (1852-1931) and Andrew Harris (1854-1932) of Wilkes County.

For more about the Harris family, see

Photos found at 

He has a free wife near Stantonsburg.

$50 Reward. RAN AWAY from the subscriber about 6 years ago, a negro man named JACOB. He is about 35 years of age, 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high, about the common color, tolerably active, has narrow feet, and a small scar over one of his eyes. It is probably he has altered his name, as he frequently passes from Stantonsburg to Newbern. He has a free wife by the name of Rancy Artis, living near Stantonsburg, & it is likely he attempts to pass for a free man. The above reward will be given to any person who shall deliver said Negro to me, living five miles about Stantonsburg, or confine him in Jail, so that I get him again. All masters of vessels are forwarned carrying him off. JOEL NEWSOM.  Wayne county, Aug. 7

Raleigh Register and North Carolina Weekly Advertiser, 19 November 1824.

Onslow County Apprentices, 1828-1833.

Durant Dove and Willis Dove were bound to James Mills in 1828.

In the 1850 census of Upper Richlands, Onslow County, Durant Dove, 40, mulatto, wife Anny and children Margarett Ann, Eliza Jane, Wm., Julia, Nancy, Durant, Edward, Mandy, Joshua, and Henry.

Durant Henderson and Willis Henderson were bound to James Mills in 1829.

Jacob [no last name] was bound to John Langley in 1829.

Silas White, son of Esther White, was bound to Jesse Sandlin in 1830.

Jesse Holly was bound to Phenehas Rouse in 1832.

Tom Hammonds was bound to Leroy Hammonds in 1832.

In the 1850 census of Half Moon, Onslow County: Thos. Hammonds, 55, farmer, wife Sena, 55, Susan Hammonds, 35, Thomas Hammonds, 24, Seana Littleton, 14, and Marthy White, 13. Thomas the elder reported $800 personal property. [Sidenote: if Thomas were the son of Thomas and Sena Hammonds, a married couple, upon what basis was he bound out?]

Edward Griffith and Sarah Griffith were bound to David Jarman in 1833.

This is possibly the Edward Griffith listed in the 1840 census of South Side of Neuse River, Craven County, as the head of a household of three free people of color.