Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Tag: Carter

Fayetteville State founders.


Fayetteville State University, now part of the University of North Carolina system, was the first normal school for African Americans in North Carolina. The university’s founding dates to 1867, when David A. Bryant, Nelson Carter, Andrew J. Chestnutt, George Grainger, Matthew Leary, Thomas Lomax and Robert Simmons paid $140 for a lot on Fayetteville’s Gillespie Street and named themselves into a board of trustees to maintain the property as a permanent site for the education of black children. General O. O. Howard, an early supporter of black education, erected a building on the site, and the school was named the Howard School in his honor.

The education center was chartered by the legislature as the State Colored Normal School in 1877. In 1880 Charles W. Chesnutt was appointed principal of the school after the death of principal Robert Harris. Chesnutt served the institution for three years before resigning and moving to Cleveland, Ohio.

Ezekiel Ezra Smith was appointed as Chestnutt’s replacement in 1883. E. E. Smith had a long and distinguished career at the school. During his span as principal (and eventually president) at the institution, he served in a host of other positions. Smith was appointed Minister Resident and Consul General of the U. S. to Liberia by President Grover Cleveland in 1888. George H. Williams assumed the duties of principal in Smith’s absence. After serving in Liberia for two years, Smith returned to North Carolina to organize the state’s first newspaper for African-Americans, The Carolina Enterprise, in Goldsboro. During Smith’s tenure, he saw the school the school move to its permanent location on Murchison Road in 1907. The high school curriculum was discontinued by the state in 1929 and Smith’s title change to president. He retired in 1933.

Adapted from

In the 1850 census of Fayetteville, Cumberland County: Angus Carter, 45, boatman, wife Dezda, 38, and children Nelson, 16, Angus, 15, John, 13, Margaret A., 12, Betsy, 10, Jane, 8, Alonzo, 5, Mellissa, 2, and Ann, 2 months.

In the 1850 census of Fayetteville, Cumberland County: John Terry, 13, Ellen Terry, 16, Sally Lucus, 12, and Thos. Lomack, 18, in the household of Jesse W. Powers, merchant.

In the 1850 census of Eastern Division, Cumberland County: Griscilla Simmons, 35, Robert, 12, Samuel, 8, and Mary A., 2.

Frances Jacobs Carter.


FRANCES JACOBS CARTER was born about 1861 in Sampson County to Jesse Adam Jacobs (ca1820-1902) and Abigail Gilliam Jacobs (ca1820-?). She married Marshall Archie Carter (1860-1922), son of William and Mary Carter, and died in 1937 in Wayne County. Jesse A. Jacobs, Jr., was her brother.

In the 1870 census of Sampson County: Jessey Jacobs, 50, farmer; wife Abigiel, 50; and children John R., 20, Martha, 17, Soloman, 15, Jessey, 13, Abigiel J., 11, and Margett F., 9; all mulatto.

5 chears, one cubbard, 3 bee gumes.

“Account of the Sale of the property of Matthew Aldridg Deceased sold by Joseph Hollowell Adm. on a credit of six months, Nov 20th 1868”

His widow [Catherine Boseman (or Simmons) Aldridge] purchased five “chears”, cart wheels and an axle, two tables (one small), two beds and furniture, “one cubbard & contents,” a clock, a gun, “3 Bee Gumes & work bench,” a tub dipper, kitchen furniture, a blind mare and two beehives.  Green Simmons, George Simmons and David Winn purchased tools, and “Robbert Aldridg,” who likely was Matthew Aldridge’s brother, bought the fourth and fifth beehive choices.  A note on William Carter for a $27.50 debt, due 1 January 1869, was described as doubtful.  The Application for Letters of Administration in the file notes that Aldridge’s heirs were John Henry Aldridge, Wm. Aldridge, Frances Aldridge, Della Aldridge, Mary Ann Aldridge, Joanna Aldridge, and James Thomas Aldridge.

In the 1860 census of Buck Swamp, Wayne County: Matthew Aldridge, 50, wife Catharine, 28, and children William, 10, John H., 16, Frances, 7, Delia, 3, and Mary A., 1, with James Boseman, 26.  All the Aldridges described as mulatto, and Matthew and James worked as railroad hands.  Matthew reported owning $200 real estate and $25 personal property.

Estate Records, Wayne County Records, North Carolina State Archives; US Federal Population Schedules.


They left their wives and took up horse-stealing.

Arrested on Suspicion. – On the 28th ultimo, two persons of suspicious appearance, one a white man and the other a mulatto, were arrested in this place, and after a hearing before a Magistrate, committed to Jail.  When first arrested, the white man gave his name as William Carter, and claimed the mulatto as his slave – said that they were both carpenters in search of work, and that they were from Rockingham county, N.C. After their commitment, Carter acknowledged that he had given a wrong name, that his true name is James Oliver, that the mulatto is a free man by the name of Alexander Carter.  They both state that they have wives, whom they left at Bruce’s cross roads in Guilford county. 

Oliver is about 5 feet 6 inches high, 26 or 27 years of age – Carter is about the same in height.

There is reason to believe they have been engaged in stealing horses, a gentleman having stated here that two horses had been stolen in Patrick county, Va., and traded off near Madison, N.C., and two others between Lexington and Salisbury, supposed to have done by two persons answering the description of the above.  They were well armed, each having a Pistol and a Bowie-knife, with plenty of ammunition.  The white man also carried a long Jack-knife, and the mulatto a steel walking stick with a buckhorn head.  – Camden Journal.

Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 7 Oct 1847.

Runaway bound boys.

FIVE CENTS REWARD – Ranaway from the subscriber, living in the county of Wilkes, a bright mulatto boy, named James Carter.  Said boy was bound to the subscriber by the county court of Wilkes.  I will give the above reward for the delivery of said boy to me, but no other charges paid.  J.E. SAINTCLAIR.  Wilkes county, May 2d, 1844

Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 11 May 1844.

$5 REWARD.  Ranaway from the subscriber in the 12th ultimo, James C. Russel, a bound mulatto Boy, about 17 years old.  Said boy is spare built and about 5 feet 6 or 8 inches high.  The above reward will be given to any person that will bring him to me, or confine him in some jail so that I get him again.  ISAAC N. RICH.  Davie County, Feb. 20, 1850

Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 6 Mar 1851.

In the 1850 census of Davie County: James C. Russel, 17, laborer, mulatto, in the household of white farmer Isaac N. Rich.  In 1860 Mocksville, Davie County: Jas. Russel, 26, wagoner, wife Caroline, 20, and son John C., 7, plus Sam Kent, 14.


Where are they now? No. 9.

W.C. was born in Washington DC in the early 1960s.  He is descended from:

(1) Robert Aldridge [1819-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via John W. Aldridge [1851-1910, Wayne County]

(2) John Armwood [ca1800-??, Sampson County] via Louisa Armwood [1830-??, Sampson/Wayne County]

(3) Vicey Artis [1810-ca1868, Greene/Wayne County] via Adam T. Artis [1831-1919, Greene/Wayne County]

(4) Mary Eliza Balkcum [1829-1924, Duplin/Wayne County]

(5) Michael Carter [1824-??, Sampson County] via Marshall Carter [1850-1922, Sampson/Wayne County]

(6) Sarah Greenfield [Wayne County]

(7) Patsey Henderson [ca1795-??, Onslow County] via James Henderson [1815-ca1890] via John H. Henderson [1861-1924]

(8) Jesse Jacobs [1822-1902, Sampson/Wayne County] via Frances Jacobs [1859-1937, Sampson/Wayne County]

(9) Winnie Medlin [ca1810-ca1905, Wayne County]

(10) James Simmons [ca1798-ca1860, Sampson/Wayne County] via Bryant Simmons [1832-ca1900, Wayne County] via Sarah E. Simmons [1862-1930, Wayne County]

(11) Gray Winn [1818-1850, Wayne County] via Elizabeth Winn [1836-??, Wayne County]