Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

John P. Green.


Hon. John P. Green was born in 1845 at New Berne, N.C., of free parents. As a boy of twelve years of age, he went with his widowed mother to Cleveland, Ohio. He was educated in the Cleveland public schools, graduating from the Central High School in 1869.

He was admitted to the bar of South Carolina in 1870. Returning to Cleveland, he for nine years served as justice of the peace. In 1881 he was elected member of the Ohio Legislature, serving three terms.

In 1897 he was appointed to a position in the postoffice department by President McKinley.He was also delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1872, in 1884 and 1896.

From D.W. Culp, ed., Twentieth century Negro literature, or, A cyclopedia of thought on the vital topics relating to the American Negro.

Courtesy of New Bern-Craven County Public Library. 

Should he be a slave ….

TAKEN UP, AND committed to the Jail of this county on the 3d of August last, a Negro man who calls himself PETER GREEN, says he is free, and that he belongs to Providence, Rhode Island. He professes to have followed the sea, and exhibits an American Protection, which, however, does not correspond with his height. He appears to be about 33 or 35 years of age, very black, well made, about 5 feet high, very artful, and had on when taken, the clothing of a seaman.

Should he be a slave, the owner is notified to come forward, comply with the requisitions of the law and take him away; otherwise he will, after a reasonable time, be sold for his jail fees, and discharged form custody.   W.C. TAYLOR, Jailor.   October 11th, 1823.

New Bern Sentinel, 24 October 1823.

As good as any mill in the state.


I have rented the Mill on Cross Creek, formerly owned by Mr. Hall. I will carry Corn to the mill and deliver MEAL or HOMINY without charge in any part of town. I have a Dray ready always for this very purpose, and I will guarantee customers as good meal or Hominy as any mill in the State can make. I will be very thankful for a liberal share of the public patronage.   ABEL PAYNE.  March 11.

Carolina Observer, Fayetteville, 11 March 1861.


The subscriber would be pleased to grind, haul to and carry from the Mill, free of charge, at the Mill near the Gas Works, formerly Mr. Hall’s.   ABEL PAYNE. July 21, 1862.

Carolina Observer, Fayetteville, 21 July 1862.

No victuals-selling or butter-buying.


At a meeting of the Commissioners of the Town of Hillsborough, held on Tuesday evening, August 3d, it was ORDERED, That the Ordinance of March 13th be so altered, that the Magistrate of Police shall not be authorized to issue any new licence to any slave or free negro, to sell victuals at the Depot, after this date, or to any white person without the payment of five dollars per month.

And it is further ordered, That no slave or free negro shall be permitted to buy chickens, butter, eggs, or other provisions, for the purpose of selling again, under the penalty of twenty lashes, if a slave, or a fine of ten dollars if a free negro, for every offence.   Teste, DENNIS HEARTT, Town Clerk.   August 5.

Hillsborough Recorder, 5 August 1863.

Yankees and negroes.


During the past three or four weeks, those counties in North Carolina bordering upon the Virginia lines of the Federal army, have been subjected to a series of the most dastardly and vindictive guerilla raids that have yet characterized the war in that quarter. The counties of Pasquotank, Camden, Currituck and Gates have suffered the most severely, from arrests of many of their principal citizens, robberies and burnings of property, and the excitement of negroes to revolt and escape.

About two weeks ago, ninety-four slaves and a party of free negroes, through the medium of Yankee inducement, stampeded from the upper part of Pasquotank and fled into the Dismal Swamp. The comprised whole families – old and young, male and female. One of the free negroes, who was doubtless dictator of the whole party, was an “aristocrat” at home, and worth some four or five thousand dollars. A number of the inhabitants of the county immediately followed in pursuit, and recovered fifty or sixty of the slaves, and found a considerable quantity of ammunition in their camp.

On the following night, a young and estimable man, named Joseph Williams, in company with two others, went on patrol to the halfway house on the Dismal Swamp Canal, and kept watch for the runaways. They soon perceived a party of negroes, about thirty in number, approaching, led by white men, supposed to be Yankees, and upon hailing them, they were fired upon by the approaching party, and young Williams was mortally wounded. He, however, raised his gun, took aim, and together with his companions, fired upon them, wounded one negro and killed two others. The rest fled, and the wounded negro was captured. Young Williams died on the spot from the effect of his wound.

…  Richmond Enquirer, 31st.

Carolina Observer, Fayetteville, 4 August 1862.

On the 5th came a traveling black man.

Notice. On the night of the 5th inst. came a travelling Black man, and took up for the night in one of my Negro houses; after my having notice of it, I took him under examination, and he called himself Willie Trip, and produced a free pass under the signature of John Jones, Esq. and John Harris, of Craven county, N.C. with a good recommendation, stating that he was to travel to the Indiana; the matter seemed somewhat suspicious, in consequence I took from him his knapsack, with several articles of clothing, in it also a Red Morocco pocket book, with some cash, together with his pass; intending to further examine next morning, but in the morning he was gone, leaving the effects with me, induces me to believe him a runaway slave. Now this notice is that the owner may have knowledge of his route. He is a stout black sensible fellow, a small scar is on his left cheek, stated in his pass; and very little doubt with me but that he came from Craven county, not far from Newbern.    GEO. BRASSFIELD, X Roads between Raleigh and Hillsborough. January 6, 1820.

Star, Raleigh, 4 February 1820.

Susan Mozingo Ward Lewis.

ImageSUSAN MOZINGO WARD LEWIS (1809-1860), great-great-granddaughter of Edward Mozingo, an African indentured servant in 17th-century Richmond County, Virginia. Susan was born in Wayne County to Sarah “Sally” Mozingo and died in Georgia.

Photo courtesy of Melicent Remy.

[Sidenote: Edward Mozingo, “a negro man,” successfully sued for his freedom in 1672.  DNA testing of his patrilineal descendants has confirmed his African origin, but by the late 18th century, many if not most of his descendants were considered white. For a fascinating exploration of the Mozingo family, see Joe Mozingo, Fiddler on Pantico Run: An African Warrior, His White Descendants, a Search for Family. — LYH]