Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

He was whipped well.

Meeting in Smithfield.

We understand that a large and enthusiastic meeting of the citizens of Smithfield, Johnston county, was held on Friday night last, at which a military company was formed numbering about one hundred. Doctor Telfair was elected Captain, and Capt. Morning first Lieutenant — both old and highly respectable individuals.  The meeting was addressed by Drs. Telfair and Beckwith, and by Messrs.Morning, Eldridge, Smith Waddell, Eldridge.   The most united and determined spirit was manifested to maintain the rights of North-Carolina.

On Friday night, a free negro named Boley Bass, was whipped at Smithfield for expressing abolition sentiments.  He was whipped well, then ordered to leave.

Weekly Standard, Raleigh, 7 December 1859.

He says that he is free, but cannot make it appear.

NOTICE.  There is in the common jail in Jones County, N.C., a negro man aged about 20 years, dark copper color, about 150 pounds, says his name is JOHN CARY, and came from Princess Anne county, Va., to Gates county, N.C., and worked with Nathan Parker for some time, then went to Craven county and worked on the Atlantic and N.C. R.R., then to Jones county. He says that he is free, but cannot make it appear, and also he is indicted as a free negro for migrating into the State.  The owner is notified to come forward, prove property, pay charges, and take him away, or he will be dealt with according to law.   J.H. NETHERCUTT, Sheriff.  May 15, 1860.

Weekly Standard, Raleigh, 16 May 1860.

Saint Anthony’s fire.


The Disease. – Since our notice, two weeks since, of the fatal disease which raged in the family of Mr. James Ellinor, in this county, his negro woman, Cain Hammonds a free negro man living with him, and the wife of Benjamin Anderson have died with the same disease – making seven deaths in all! – Eli Parker, James Ellinor and wife, their cook, and Hammonds, five at Mr. Ellinor’s house – Edward G. Thompson, in this place, who attended Mr. Parker and caught the disease from him – and Mrs. Anderson, living near there, who visited the family.  The others that were attacked, have recovered or are convalescent.  The disease is still variously designated St. Anthony’s fire, black tongue, &c. We are informed by our physicians that there is now no case of it in the county. – Press.

Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 1 March 1845.

Saint Anthony’s fire, or erysipelas, is an acute bacterial skin and subcutaneous tissue infection.  It is indeed contagious.

He calls himself John Blair.

TAKEN UP & COMMITTED TO JAIL. In this place on the 6th day of November last, a Negro Man, between 30 and 35 years old, 5 feet 5 inches high, a dark mulatto, he has a small scar under his chin, he has lost two of his upper front teeth: he had with him when taken, a great many clothes, three coats of homespun, 6 or 7 shirts, 6 or 7 pairs of pantaloons, and 5 or 6 vests, a rifle gun, a Lapine Watch, and two gold breast pins.

He calls himself John Blair, and says he is a free man, and was raised in Charleston S.C.  JOHN M. VANHOY, Jailor. Germanton, Stokes Co. N.C. 1837

Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 18 Mar 1837.

Craven County Apprentices, 1784-1787.

On 18 December 1784, Hagar Black, a free Negro girl aged 4 years next May, was bound to Mary Heath, widow, “in the necessary Business Incident to House Wifery.”

On 16 December 1786, Rhoda, a mulatto girl aged 16 years, was bound to William Smith.

On 16 March 1787, Liza, a free Negro girl aged 11 years, was bound to William Good, Esq., for housewifery.

On 12 June 1787, Jim Moore, orphan mulatto boy aged 7 years, was bound to Edward Potter as a carpenter and joiner.

On 12 June 1787, Joseph Drigg, orphan aged 18 years, was bound to John West of New Bern as a carpenter and joiner.

On 12 June 1787, Abel Carter, a free Negro boy aged about 8 years, was bound to Abner Neale, Esq., as a cooper.

On 13 June 1787, an orphan lad named Will, now aged 3 years, was bound to Mary Heath as a servant.  [A second indenture that indicated Will is a “Negroe Boy.”]

On 14 September 1787, Stephen Lewis, a Negro boy, was bound to William Carter as a turner.

Threatened his life if he said otherwise than that he was a slave.


On Friday last, a man whose name is supposed to be Elisha Kirkman, arrived here by the way of the Rail Road, bringing with him a black boy 14 or 15 years of age, whom he represented to be his slave.  The next day he sold the boy, for $325, to Mr. R.H. Grant, of this town, giving the usual warrantee title to him, and signing the bill of sale John Parker.  Soon after the purchase was a made and a check for the amount had been given, Mr. Grant questioned the boy as to where he came from &c., when the boy declared he was free, and gave this account of himself: That his name is Edward Bailey, and is a native of Guilford County, in this State, where his father, whose name is Samuel Bailey, and who is a bricklayer by trade, now lives.  That the County Court of Guilford, some four or five months since, bound him until twenty-one years of age, to one Alvin or Alva Kirkman,  That the man who brought him here is the brother of the man to whom he was bound, and that he bought his (the boy’s) time from his brother with two horses and a few dollars in money.  That after he got him into possession, he brought him down the country, travelling with a horse-wagon, pretending that he was going to the sea-shore to get a load of oysters.  That after they struck the Rail Road, somewhere near Rocky Mount, Kirkman threatened his life if he said otherwise than that he was his slave, and leaving the wagon, they came on here in the cars, Kirkman selling him as above mentioned.

After hearing this statement, Mr. Grant went in pursuit of Kirkman, and demanded to have the check which he had given him for the boy returned.  He returned it readily. Mr. Grant then got out a process for his apprehension.  – He was arrested as he was going on board one of the Charleston Steamers, to take passage on her, and committed to jail. He now acknowledges that the boy is free.  On Monday he was examined before Justices Nichols and Peden, and in default of bail, was remanded to jail, to stand a trial before the Superior Court for New Hanover county. – Wilmington Chronicle of the 8th inst.

Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 16 March 1848.

In the 1850 census of Southern Division, Guilford County: Samuel Baily, 53, black, laborer, wife Nancy, 35, and children James M., 7, and Mary Jane Baily, 5. Next door, the household of James Woody, a white blacksmith.

Free-Issue Death Certificates: SIMMONS.

George Robert Simmons.  Died 24 June 1922, Dudley, Brogden, Wayne County.  Colored.  Married to Molly Simmons. Farmer.  Age about 75. Born Wayne County to George Simmons and Floxy Jane Simmons. Informant, Robert Simmons.

Bryant Simmons.  Died 14 Jan 1932, Brogden, Wayne County.  Colored. Married to Donnie Simmons. Farmer.  Born 2 Dec 1852, Mount Olive NC,  to George W. Simmons of Duplin County and Flozie Manuel  of Sampson County.  Buried in Dudley NC. Informant, Geneve Simmons, Dudley.

General Washington Simmons.  Died 27 Jan 1941, Dudley, Brogden, Wayne County.  Negro. Widower of Mary E. Simmons.  Age 84. Farmer.  Born Wayne County to George Washington [Simmons] of Wayne County and Flaxie Jane Simmons of Wayne County.  Buried, Simmons burying ground.  Informant, Orlander Simmons.

Hillery B. Simmons.  Died 25 Oct 1942, Brogden, Wayne County.  Colored.  Married to Celester Simmons.  Farmer.  Age 84. Born Wayne County to George Simmons of Wayne County and unknown mother.  Buried, Congregational cemetery. Informant, Moses Budd.

Riley Simmons.  Died 17 July 1924, Dudley, Brogden, Wayne County. Colored. Married. Born 1840, Dudley, to Geo. Simmons and Axy Simmons. Buried Wayne County. Informant, Sam Simmons.

Zachariah T. Simmons. Died 17 March 1938, High Point, Guilford County. Resided 604 Fairview. Colored. Minister. Married to Mrs. Eugenie W. Simmons. Born 12 December 1848, Mount Olive, to George W. Simmons of Dublin [Duplin] and Axie Manuel. Buried High Point. Informant, Mrs. Eugenie Simmons.

In the 1860 census of Indian Springs, Wayne County: George Simmons, 40, wife Axey J, 38, and children Riley B., 19, Simon, 15, Susan A., 17, George R., 13, Zack, 10, Silvania, 9, Bryant, 7, H.B., 5, and Gen., 2. 

William Frank Simmons. Died 4 Jan 1944, Dudley, Brogden, Wayne County.  Colored. Married to Sarah Simmons. Farmer.  82 years, 7 months, 4 days old.  Born Wayne County to Bryant Simmons and Betsy Winn, both of Wayne County.  Buried Dudley.  Informant, Sarah Simmons, Dudley.

William C. Simmons. Died 2 Aug 1920, Piney Grove, Sampson County.  Negro. Married. Farmer. Age 75. Born Dudley NC to Green Simmons and Betsy J. Thornton of Sampson County.  Buried private burial ground. Informant, Charlie Simmons.

Betsy Lee Drew.  Died 26 Aug 1927, Wilmington, New Hanover County.  Resided 7 King Street.  Colored. Widow. Age 63. Born Dudley NC to Green Simmons and Jene Thorington. Buried Dudley NC.  Informant, Arthur Drew.

In the 1860 census of Indian Springs, Wayne County: Green Simmons, 43, mechanic; wife, Betsey; and children Needham G., 15, Cisero W., 13, Mary, 12, Martha R., 9, Media, 7, Seamore D., 5, Crecy B., 2, and B.L., 2 months.