TAKEN up and committed to Moore County Jail on the 26th of August, a Negro man who says his name is RANDAL LOCKLIER. Said Locklier is about thirty (30) years of age, five feet eight and a half inches high; had on a dark pair of pants and coat; good teeth, dark complected; a scar on the left side of his head where his hair parts, and another a little above his left ear, and one just below his left ear. Said boy says he was free born in Robeson, and resides in Columbus; but has no free papers. If he belongs to any person, let them come forward, prove property, pay all charges, and take him away. W.K. NUNNERY, Jailor. Aug. 26.
Fayetteville Weekly Observer, 11 October 1858.
“Freeman, community in ne Columbus County. Believed to have been named for free Negroes living in the area before the Civil War.” — William S. Powell, The North Carolina Gazetteer: A Dictionary of Tar Heel Places (1968).
William Spaulding. 30 improved acres, 670 unimproved acres, value $700. Implements valued at $25. One horses. 6 milch cows. 1 ox. 6 other cattle. 19 sheep. 15 swine. Livestock valued at $156. 125 bushels, Indian corn. 400 lbs., rice. 2 lbs., tobacco. 20 lbs., wool. 10 bushels, peas and beans. 100 bushels, Irish potatoes. 15 lbs., butter. Household utensils valued at $10. Slaughtered animals valued at $75.
1850 agricultural schedule, Columbus County. [Sidenote: Spaulding’s household was listed in the population schedule of Bladen County, rather than Columbus. — LYH]
Edd Bowen. Died 18 November 1925, Ransom, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Farmer. Born 12 June 1858 in NC to James Bowen and Esther Blanks. Buried Eastarcadia NC. Informant, Alice Andrews, Dilco NC.
In the 1860 census of Bladen County: Jas. Boon, 34, wife Esther, 24, and children James, 10, Mary M., 8, G.F., 7, Catharine, 5, W.G., 4, Eddy, 2, and Sarah, 2 months.
Catherine Jackson. Died 7 July 1932, Waccamaw, Columbus County. Indian. Widow of David Jackson. Born 12 April 1858 in Columbus County to J.A. Bowen of Columbus County and Susan Lacewell of Bladen County. Buried Holly Ridge NC. Informant, Geo. M. Mitchell.
In the 1860 census of Columbus County: John Bowen, 45, farmer, wife Susan 46, and children John, 23, Frances, 21, Lucy, 20, Anna, 17, Jane, 15, Betsey, 13, James, 10, G., 8, Henry, 5, Lydia, 3, and Caty Bowen, 2. John and Susan were born in Bladen County. They and their oldest three children were described as mulatto; the remainder as black.
John William Mitchell. Died 5 January 1934, Waccamaw, Columbus County. Indian. Married to Colista Mitchell. Farmer. Born 1 November 1858, Waccamaw, to B.F. Mitchell and Mary Frances Bowen. Buried Mitchell cemetery. Informant, Cary Mitchell, Hallsboro NC.
In the 1860 census of Bladen County: B.F. Mitchel, 24, wife Mary F., 21, and children A.E., 3, and John W., 2.
Calvin Thomas Mitchell. Died 29 February 1916, Ransom, Columbus County. Negro. Married. Farmer. Born about 1862 in Columbus County to Buckhorn Mitchell and Dalcedia Chafus. Buried Freeman. Informant, Joe Moore.
In the 1860 census of Bladen County: J.W. Mitchel, 30, turpentine, wife Dalsadid, 25, and children Anna, 9, Mary M., 8, Britton, 6, Calvin T., 4, and Davis, 2 months.
Elsie Blanks. Died 3 December 1915, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Widow. Colored. Born about 1838 to Shade Chavis. Buried Welches Creek township. Informant, McI. Spaulding.
The following surnames appear among free people of color in the 1860 census of Columbus County:
ARTIS, BORNE, BOWEN, BRITT, BROWN, CAMPBELL, CHAVIS, CORNER, CRIBB, FREEMAN, GANUS, GODWIN, HAYNER, HAYS, HILL, JACOBS, JONES, KELLY, LAURELL, LEWIS, LOCKLEAR/LOCKLIER, LOWERY, MITCHEL, MOORE, MOROS, NOBLES, PEAVY, SANTEE, SHAW, SMITH, SPAULDING, WALKER, WEBB, WHITE, WIGGS, WILLIAMS and YOUNG.
Ord. that William Spalden have leave to Build a Saw & griss Mill in Sd County on Slade Swamp about 150 yds above Rooty Branch.
November Term, 1837, Minutes of Columbus County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, North Carolina State Archives.
Emaline Blanks. Died 21 January 1929, Whites Creek, Bladen County. Colored. Widow of Sam Blanks. Born 1838 in NC to Iver Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Whites Creek. Informant, John Blanks, Clarkton NC.
Angeline Campbell. Died 31 December 1921, Whites Creek, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Widow of Dan Campbell. Born about 1848, Columbus County, to Iver Spaulding and Mary [illegible]. Buried Mitchell graveyard. Informant, Israel Campbell.
Delila Spaulding. Died 4 Jul 1920, Whites Creek, Bladen County. Colored. Married to Henry W. Spaulding. Born 1860 to Ben J. Moore and Mary C. Moore. Buried Mitchell Graveyard. Informant, U. Steph. Moore, Clarkton NC.
In the 1850 census of Cape Fear South West Side, Bladen County: Iver Spaulding, 28, farmer; wife Mary, 23; children Henry W., 6, Emeline, 5, and John W., 3, and Angeline Spaulding, 1; William, 17, and Daniel Jacobs, 20; and John Freeman, 15.
Lucy J. Blanks. Died 6 May 1915, Welchs Creek, Columbus County. Black. Widow. Day laborer. Born about 1860, Columbus County to David Spaulding and Mary J. Ransome. Buried Welchs Creek. Informant, R.O. Spaulding.
Henry Spaulding. Died 4 October 1924, Whiteville, Welch Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Deliah Spaulding. Farmer. Age 72. Born Welch Creek to David Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Mitchell Cemetery. Informant, Stephen More.
Robt. O. Spaulding. Died 12 December 1936, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Jane Tucker Spaulding. Preacher and farmer. Born 11 December 1849, Columbus County to David Spaulding and Mary Ransom. Buried Mitchel cemetery. Informant, Al Spaulding.
In the 1850 census of Columbus County: David Spaulding, 21, wife Mary, 20, and son Robt. O., 6 months, plus Lydia Webb, 9.
Caldonia Freeman. Died 12 June 1922, Bogue, Columbus County. Black. Widow of James O. Freeman. Born 1 June 1842, Elkton NC, to John Spaulding and Penelope Moore, both of Elkton. Buried Mitchell cemetery. Informant, Jonathan Spaulding.
Jonathan Spaulding. Died 10 November 1926, Whiteville, Columbus County. Colored. Married to “Bettie Ann.” Age 70. Born Bladen County to John Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Mitchell cemetery.
Delila Spauldwin. Died 18 August 1921, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Henry D. Spauldwin. Born 10 May 1850 to Jno. Spauldwin and Penny Smith. Buried Mitchels Cem. Informant, A.D. Carter, uncle.
In the 1850 census of Cape Fear South West Side, Bladen County: John Spaulding, 33, farmer; wife Penelopy, 26; and children Caledonia, 8, Delphia, 6, Elvy, 5, and Edith, 2. In the 1860 census of Bladen County: John Spaulding, 43, farmer; wife Penelope, 35; and children Caladonia, 18, Delphia, 17, Elvy, 14, E.M., 13, Delila, 9, and Penny, 2; plus Mariah More, 9.
J.A. Spaulding. Died 10 April 1911, Salisbury, Rowan County. Resided 309 S. Vanderford. Negro. Married. Baptist minister. Born 12 Oct 1856, Columbus County, to Benjamin Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Oaksdale cemetery, Salisbury. Informant, Mrs. Lulu Spaulding Kelsey, Salisbury.
Annie J.T. Spaulding. Died 17 April 1927, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Robt. O. Spaulding. Born 29 August 1857, Columbus County, to Benj. Spaulding of Columbus County and Maria Spaulding of Bladen County. Informant, Robt. O. Spaulding.
Henry Ivan Spaulding. Died 21 March 1929, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Fannie Spaulding. Age 65 years, 5 months, 20 days. Farmer. Born Columbus County to Benj. Spaulding of Columbus County and Maria Lowry of Robeson County. Buried Mitchel cemetery. Informant, Jack Spaulding.
In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Benj. Spaulding Jr., 23, wife Maria, 20, and daughter Frances, 2, plus Daniel Webb, 5, and George Freeman, 6. In the 1860 census of Columbus County, Benj. Spaulding, 35, farmer; wife Mariah, 34 (born Cumberland County); and children F.E., 12, M., 10, B., 7, John, 5, A.J.L., 3, and Rhoda, 1; plus Daniel Webb, 16 (born Brunswick County.)
Amanda Moore. Died 14 November 1914, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Negro. Widow. Born 7 April 1849 to Amanuel Spaulding and Amanda Spaulding. Informant, Maggie Armstrong, Clarkton.
Andrew Thomas Spaulding. Died 17 July 1934, Whiteville, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Mariah Spaulding. Age 75 years, 11 months. Farmer. Born NC to Emmenel Spaulding and Susa Spries. Buried Mitchell cemetery. Informant, Anna Dora Carter.
B.M. Spaulding. Died 5 Mar 1921, W. Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Farmer. Born 7 January 1845 to Emanuel Spaulding and Susan Spaulding. Buried Mitchel cemetery.
Evrit Freeman. Died 2 June 1942, Welchs Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Born Oct 1860, Columbus County, to John R. Freeman and Sarah Jane Spauldin. Buried Mitchel Field. Informant, Hanes Freeman.
In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Manual Spaulding, 37, farmer; wife Susan, 30, and children Sarah J., 12, Mary A., 10, Anna E., 8, Benj., 6, Madalaine, 4, Amanda, 1; plus Wm. Chavas, 2, and Wm. Skipper, 30. In the 1860 census of Columbus County, Emanuel Spaulding, 48, farmer; wife Susan, 35; and children A.E., 18, Benj., 16, M., 14, Amanda, 11, Lany, 9, and A. T., 1.
Isabella Spaulding. Died 7 November 1932, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widow of Iver Spaulding. Age 82. Born Columbus County to unknown father and Tierce Moore. Buried Mitchell cemetery. “Casket shipped here from Ga.” Informant, L.L. Spaulding.
In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Benj. J. Moore, 64, farmer; wife Martha, 60; and children and grandchildren Thursey, 30, Owen, 17, James and John, 15, Benj., 12, Aaron, 8, Hardy, 12, Lucy A., 7, Isbel, 5, Sarah J., 3, and Maria, 4 months.
John W. White. Died 11 December 1920, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Etta White. Born 8 August 1848. Farmer. Born to Wiley White and Mary Spaulding. Buried Mitchel Sem.
In the 1860 census of Columbus County: Willey F. White, 39, farmer (born Pitt County) with M.A., 20, John W., 14, and W.F. White, 7, plus W.S. Freeman, 7.
Benjamin Spaulding (1773-1862) was born into slavery in Duplin County. He married Edith Delphi Jacobs (1786-1871), who bore him ten children: William (1810-1883), Emmanuel (1813-1872), Armistead (1814-1890), Armstrong, John (1817-1894), Iver (1819-1886), Anna Eliza (1822-1906), Benjamin Jr. (1824-1864), David (1829-1864) and Henry (1831-1906).
Though Benjamin Spaulding was not formally freed by Samuel Swindale, Jr. until 1835, he lived essentially as a free man for many years before, as evidenced in census records and deed records. He and Edith had several prominent descendants, including Dr. Aaron Moore (1863-1923), co-founder of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Mechanics and Farmers Bank, and Lincoln Hospital in Durham, and Charles C. Spaulding (1874-1952), who led North Carolina Mutual’s expansion in the first half of the 20th century.
The Benjamin and Edith Spaulding Descendants Association maintains a website at www.spauldingfamily.com.