Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Tag: Armwood

Particulars for the funeral.


Funeral bill for Anna Henderson Simmons, who died in Logansport, Cass County, Indiana, on 16 June 1906.

Anna H. Simmons was a native of Wayne County, North Carolina. Contrary to information shown in this document, her parents were James Henderson and Eliza Armwood Henderson. Anna’s husband Montraville Simmons was born in Duplin or Wayne County, North Carolina, in 1839 to John Calvin Simmons and Hepsie Whitley Simmons. The family migrated to Ontario, Canada, in the 1850s.

In the 1850 census of South Side of Neuse, Wayne County, North Carolina: farmer Calvin Simmons, 42, wife Hepsey, 46, and children Harriet, 13, Susan, 11, Montrival, 9, Jno. R., 7, Margaret, 5, Dixon, 3, and Geo. W., 1, plus Robt. Aldridge, 26, who worked as a hireling. 

In the 1860 census of Westbrooks, Sampson County, North Carolina: James Henderson, mulatto carpenter; wife Eliza; and four children, Anna J., Susan, Hepsie, and Alexander

Copy of funeral bill courtesy of Kroeger Funeral Home, Logansport, Indiana.

A free man of color gives information, is handsomely rewarded.

The Edenton Gazette states, upon information received from an undoubted source, that there have been killed in Southampton county upwards of one hundred negroes, consequent upon the late insurrection in that county. Fourteen of the thoughtless, savage wretches have been tried, of whom, thirteen were convicted, and are to be hung during the present week — there are thirty more now in the jail at Jerusalem yet to be tried, besides others in jail at Bellfield.

We understand that about twenty-one negroes have been committed to jail in Edenton, on a charge of having been concerned in concerting a project of rebellion. A slave has also been arrested and imprisoned in Duplin county, upon a similar allegation. He had communicated his knowledge of the scheme in agitation to a free man of color, who gave immediate information to the whites. Serious reports in relation to a revolt of the slaves in Wilmington and Sampson county, reached this city, by the way of Smithfield, on Monday night and Tuesday morning last. On Tuesday evening, certain intelligence from various sources reached us of an insurrection having occurred on Sunday night last in a part of Sampson and Duplin counties. Its extent or the damage done is unknown to us. But, as the militia have been called out in the adjacent counties, we flatter ourselves that it will be speedily suppressed, and that the deluded wretches who are concerned in the diabolical attempt will be made to suffer severely for their temerity.…

The miserable deluded and fiendish band in Southampton have paid dearly for their stupidity and atrocious wickedness; and such will inevitably be the late of all who may ever be so silly and depraved as to intimate their example. But there are some, it seems, reckless enough to attempt it. Vigilance, therefore, becomes necessary for perfect security.

North Carolina Star (Raleigh), 15 September 1831.


General Assembly.

The resolution in favor of Leavin Armwood, was read the second and third time and ordered to be engrossed. [This Resolution votes $250 to the individual named, a free man of color, as a reward for his having disclosed the meditated conspiracy amongst the slaves of Duplin and Sampson.]

North Carolina Free Press (Halifax), 10 January 1832.

Armwoods on the lam.

$200 Reward!

Stop the Thieves and runaway Mulattoes.

WHEREAS, sometime ago, Jemima Armwood, a free mulatto woman, for the sum of $200, (to enable her to purchase her husband, named Richard, or commonly called Dick Youngblood, well known in Barnwell District, So. Ca.) bound three of her Girls, named Becky, about 17 years old, Teena, about 14, and Darcas, about 12, to me, to serve as indented servants, and on Thursday, the 8th instant, they inveigled them from my service and removed to parts unknown, taking them my three servants; they besides committed several acts of swindling, theft, outrages, and other rogueries, to myself and others, — such as stealing my sulkey and harness, and selling them in Hamburg, S.C., on the 7th instant; and on the 8th, assaulting and beating a white man, a respectable old gentleman; and many other villainies too numerous to be here inserted.

A reward of $200 dollars will be paid for apprehending the said Jemima, her husband Dick, Becky, Teena, and Darcas, and deliver them to me, or in the Augusta Jail. They have besides five smaller children, one a sucking baby, and may probably have their son, named Daniel, about 22 years of age, all mulattoes, 10 or 11 in number. They started with a cart and a white blind mare; the cart is an uncommon one, it has a very large new body nailed to the shafts, the wheels are from an old gig, originally painted green, but dirty – the axletree of the cart is wood, and the ends that goes in the wheels are iron. Dick is short, about 40 or 50 years of age, illiterate but keen, artful, and well acquainted with the world – most any subject can furnish him with grounds on which to build plausible stories, to secure in his favor the sympathy of others; (and girls are known to be prolific subjects.) Therefore, in order, if possible to counteract his cunning, and as I am not known at a distance, let it be known that I am a married man, with wife and seven small children, the oldest only ten years. I employed the three girls in nursing my small children, and to no other work, and never whipped them; but Dick gave Teena a most unmerciful whipping on the 8th instant, for not robbing me according his directions, and may probably place that whipping too, to my credit, in order to enlist the feelings of others in his favor. – They have been traced to Fayetteville, N.C., and arrived there between the 18th and 26th February. JOHN GUIMARIN, Watch Maker, No. 171, Broad Street. Augusta, Geo. Feb. 23, 1827.

Fayetteville Weekly Observer, 3 May 1827.

The Armwoods get certified and paid.


During the Civil War, free men of color were conscripted to build breastworks on North Carolina’s southern coast. After filing claims, the Armwoods were paid for their two weeks of service — minus the cost of a furnished blanket.

In the 1850 census of Southern District, Sampson County: John Armwood, 50, laborer; Susan, 30; Henderson, 25; Louisa, 20; Henry, 16; Richard, 15; and John Armwood, 13. In the Northern District: James Winn, 33; Buckner L.Bryan, 14; Zachariah Bryan, 13; and Owen Armwood, 24.

Confederate Papers Relating to Citizens or Business Firms, 1861-1865, National Archives and Record Administration.

Minutes, New Hanover Court of P&Q.

At February term, 1807: Ordered that John Beauford, a mulatto fellow now in prison, for whom F. Fontaine and John McLellan became security for the procurement of a certificate for his freedom, and it appearing to the court that the said mulatto is a freeman, that he be released from prison upon F. Fontaine’s paying his jail fees and that the bond of the said Francis and John be cancelled and given up.

At May term, 1807: Upon the petition of Philip Bazadier ordered that a mulatto woman named Susan be emancipated and set free from slavery and that she hereafter bear the named Susan Bazadier.

At May term, 1807: Ordered that Anthony Williamson be appointed guardian of Major Armwood, an orphan, in room of Bartholomew Byrns, who surrenders said orphan to the court, giving bond with John Walker, and Joel Parrish as securities.

At August term, 1807: Upon the petition of J.D. Toomer and Lewis Toomer, ordered that Sam, a negro man slave of the said petitioners be emancipated and set free from slavery and that he hereafter bear the name of Sam Toomer, the petitioners giving bond with Wm. Campbell, secy.

Minutes, Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions, New Hanover County Records, North Carolina State Archives. 

Edward J. & Susan Henderson Wynn.



EDWARD JAMES WINN (1838-1922) was the son of Gray Winn and Sarah “Sallie” Greenfield Winn.  His wife, SUSAN HENDERSON WYNN (1854-1907), was the daughter of James Henderson and Louisa Armwood Henderson. They are buried in a small family cemetery near Dudley in southern Wayne County.

Photograph by Lisa Y. Henderson, March 2013.

In the 1850 census of South Side of the Neuse, Wayne County: Sally Winn, 30, and children Betsey, 14, Edw’d J., 12, Eliza, 10, Penny, 6, Ally, 4, and Washington, 1.

In the 1860 census of Westbrooks, Sampson County: James Henderson, 52, wife Eliza, 25, and children Anna J., 8, Susan, 6, Hepsie, 4, and Alexander, 1.

[Sidenote: Edward Winn’s brother, Washington Francis “Frank,” married Susan Henderson’s sister Hepsie. — LYH]

Where are they now? No. 13.

E.H. was born in Dudley NC in the late 1940s.  He is descended from these free people of color:

(1) Robert Aldridge [1819-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via John W. Aldridge [1851-1910, Wayne County]

(2) John Armwood [ca1800-??, Sampson County] via Louisa Armwood [1830-??, Sampson/Wayne County]

(3) Vicey Artis [1810-ca1868, Greene/Wayne County] via Adam T. Artis [1831-1919, Greene/Wayne County]

(4) Mary Eliza Balkcum [1829-1924, Duplin/Wayne County]

(5) Sarah Greenfield [ca1820-??, Duplin/Wayne County]

(6) Patsey Henderson [ca1795-??, Onslow County] via James Henderson [1815-ca1890] via John H. Henderson [1861-1924]

(7) Winnie Medlin [ca1810-ca1905, Wayne County]

(8) James Simmons [ca1798-ca1860, Sampson/Wayne County] via Bryant Simmons [1832-ca1900, Wayne County] via Sarah E. Simmons [1862-1930, Wayne County]

(9) Gray Winn [1818-1850, Wayne County] via Elizabeth Winn [1836-??, Wayne County]

(10) Levi Winn [ca1820-??, Duplin/Wayne County] via Mary Levi Winn [1846-??, Duplin/Wayne County]

(11) Washington Winn [ca1820-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via Levi Winn [1842-??, Duplin/Wayne County]

William Armwood.


WILLIAM ARMWOOD, born circa 1835 in Sampson County to Major and Eliza Armwood.  He married Martha “Matta” Simmons, daughter of James and Winnie Medlin Simmons.  They lived into the 1920s.

The 1850 census of the Northern District of Duplin County lists Major Armwood, 53, wife Eliza, 42, and son William, 14, plus Mariah Brewington, 10.

Photo courtesy of Andrea Gooden.

Where are they now? No. 9.

W.C. was born in Washington DC in the early 1960s.  He is descended from:

(1) Robert Aldridge [1819-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via John W. Aldridge [1851-1910, Wayne County]

(2) John Armwood [ca1800-??, Sampson County] via Louisa Armwood [1830-??, Sampson/Wayne County]

(3) Vicey Artis [1810-ca1868, Greene/Wayne County] via Adam T. Artis [1831-1919, Greene/Wayne County]

(4) Mary Eliza Balkcum [1829-1924, Duplin/Wayne County]

(5) Michael Carter [1824-??, Sampson County] via Marshall Carter [1850-1922, Sampson/Wayne County]

(6) Sarah Greenfield [Wayne County]

(7) Patsey Henderson [ca1795-??, Onslow County] via James Henderson [1815-ca1890] via John H. Henderson [1861-1924]

(8) Jesse Jacobs [1822-1902, Sampson/Wayne County] via Frances Jacobs [1859-1937, Sampson/Wayne County]

(9) Winnie Medlin [ca1810-ca1905, Wayne County]

(10) James Simmons [ca1798-ca1860, Sampson/Wayne County] via Bryant Simmons [1832-ca1900, Wayne County] via Sarah E. Simmons [1862-1930, Wayne County]

(11) Gray Winn [1818-1850, Wayne County] via Elizabeth Winn [1836-??, Wayne County]

Free-Issue Death Certificates: ARMWOOD

Penny Armwood.  Died 27 Apr 1925, Little Coharie township, Sampson County.  Resided 4 miles south of Roseboro.  Widow of Henry Armwood.  Black.  Born 1 Sep 1829 in Sampson County to Richard Armwood and Mary Faircloth, both of North Carolina. Buried W.R. McKenzie Col. Cem. Informant, James Armwood.

Penny’s husband Henry appears as a 16 year-old in the household of John and Susan Armwood in the 1850 census of the Northern Division of Sampson County.

Martha Armwood.  Died 7 May 1927, Faison, Duplin County.  Colored.  Widow of William Armwood.  Born 16 May 1831 to Jim Simmons and Winnie Medley, both of NC.  Buried in Sampson County.  Informant, Everett Armwood, Faison.

Eleven year-old Martha Simmons appears in her parents James and Winney Simmons’ household in the 1850 census of Northern Division of Sampson County.

Kilbey Armwood.  Died 2 Feb 1855, Faison, Duplin County.  Colored.  Widower.  Farmer.  Born 5 Feb 1855 in Sampson County to William Armwood and Martha Brewington. Buried family cemetery in Faison.  Informant, Almond Armwood, Faison.

William (26) and Martha Armwood (21) appear in the 1860 census of Turkey township, Sampson County with children, including Mary Ann (1).

William Armwood.  Died 23 Oct 1926, Faison, Duplin County.  Colored. Age 97 years, 6 months, 7 days. Married to Martha Armwood.  Farmer.  Born in Sampson County to Major Armwood and Liza Armwood.  Buried in Duplin County.  Informant, Wilsy Armwood, Faison.

In the 1850 census of the Northern Division of Sampson County: Major (53), Eliza (42) and William Armwood (14).

Polly Ann Simmons.  Died 5 July 1940 at Duke Hospital, Durham.  Resided in Clinton, Sampson County. Indian.  Widow of Cisroe Williams Simmons. Born 1 May 1856 in Sampson County to William Armwood and Mattie Simmons.  Informant, E.J. Simmons, Clinton.