Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Month: October, 2012

A dark mulatto missing two teeth.

Taken Up & Committed to Jail.

In this place on the 6th day of November last, a Negro Man, between 30 and 35 years old, 5 feet 5 inches high, a dark mulatto, he has a small scar under his chin, he has lost two of his upper teeth; he had with him taken a great many clothes, three coats of homespun, 6 or 7 shirts, 6 or 7 pairs of pantalons, and 5 or 6 vests, a rifle gun, a Lapin Watch, and two gold breast pins.  He calls himself John Blair, and says he is a free man, and was raised in Charleston, S.C.    John M. Vanhoy, Jailor, Germanton, Stokes Co., NC, 1837

The Carolina Watchman, 18 March 1837.

It is the misfortune of their children.

Frances Howard v. Sarah Howard, 51 NC 235 (1858).

In about 1818, Miles Howard, then a slave, “without other ceremony, took for his wife, by consent of his master” a slave named Matilda, who belonged to a Mr. Burt.  Miles was immediately thereafter emancipated, bought Matilda, and had a daughter named Frances.  Miles freed Matilda, and they had seven more children, Robert, Eliza, Miles, Charles, Lucy, Ann and Thomas, before Matilda died.  A few years later, Miles married a free woman of color “with due ceremony” and had four children, Sarah, John, Nancy and Andrew. In 1836, Frances was emancipated by an Act of the State Legislature.  After Miles’ death, his children by Matilda claimed their share of Miles’ estate, but his children by the free woman of color claimed to be Miles’ sole heirs.  Halifax County Superior Court found for the defendants, and plaintiffs appealed.  After an exegesis on slave marriage, the state Supreme Court held that, because thet did not marry legally once freed, neither Frances nor the rest of Matilda’s children were legitimate.  “It is the misfortune of their children that they neglected or refused [to marry lawfully], for no court can avert the consequences.” Judgment for Sarah and her full siblings.

The 1850 census of Halifax County shows Miles Howard (51), who was a barber, wife Caroline (25) and children Frances (25), Charles (17), Lucy (11), Thos. (8), Sarah (4), John (2) and Nancy (5 mos.)  Son Miles Jr. (23), also a barber, lived nearby.

Annie Eatmon Locus.

Image

ANNIE EATMON LOCUS was born about 1877 in Wilson County to Wilmouth Eatmon (ca1834-ca1910), a free woman of color, and Hackney High, a white man.  She married Acey (or Ace or Asa) Locus (1860-1958), son of Martin and Eliza Brantley Locus.  Annie E. Locus died in 1952.

Photo courtesy of Gregory J. Wilkins.

Threatened me with punishment if I done so again.

Daniel Manuel filed claim #5535 with the Southern Claims Commission.  He was 54 years old and had lived 10 miles west of Fayetteville for the previous 5 years.  Sometime during the war, he moved about 30 miles from Bladen County, where he was free-born, to a place about 6 miles west of Fayetteville.  Before the war, he lived in Sampson County.  He was a farmer and cooper, but only farmed during the war.  

He worked for 4 months at the Confederate arsenal in Fayetteville “very much against my wish.”  He was “on the union side all the time but could not say anything being a col’d man not entitled to a vote or allowed to talk.”

He named Hardy West, Arch’d Buie and John Buie, all white men, as witnesses to his loyalty, but all refused to testify.  “So,” he said, “I have to call on my own col. for that proof.”

“While I was at work at the arsenal I was arrested and taken before the com’d officer and examined on the charge of talking in favour of the union cause with some of my own col. I confessed that I had expressed myself in that way the officer threatened me with punishment if I done so again.  He turned me loose and I went back to work” in the blacksmith shop.  His nephew George Manuel was also forced to work at the arsenal.

Marshal White, aged about 47, lived about 5 miles west of Fayetteville and worked as a cooper.  For the last two years he had lived on the the same plantation as Daniel.

Peter Owen, aged about 40, had lived 8 miles west of Fayetteville for 4 years.  Before that, he lived at 3 different places.  During the war, he lived with William Owen and farmed.  He had known Daniel since he was a small boy and lived on the same plantation as Daniel about 2 years before the war.

Richard Lovitt, 51, had lived in Beaver Creek, about 6 miles west of Fayetteville for over 19 years.  He farmed and distilled turpentine.  He had known Daniel since 1861.  

Surnames: Wilson County, 1860.

ANDREWS, ARTIS, AYRES, BLACKWELL, BOOTH, BRANTLEY, BUTLER, CARRAWAY(CARROLL), DAVIS, DUNSTAN, EATMON, FARMER, FOGG, HAGANS/HEGGINS, HALL, HAWLEY, HIGGINS, HIMAN, JAMES, JOHNSTON, JONES, KERSEY, LANGSTON, LASSITER, LOCUS, LUCAS, LYNCH, MANLY, MARBLY, MITCHELL, MORRIS, PARKER, PERRY, PORTICE, POWELL, RICHARDSON, ROSE, ROWE, SHAVERS, SIMMS, SIMPSON, TABORN, TAYLOR, THOMAS, THORN, and WIGGINS.

Mortality Schedule: Caswell County, 1850.

William Chavis, mulatto, 5 mos., born Caswell County, sudden.

Susan Bowers, mulatto, 75, widow, born Va., old age.

Mahala Hathcock, black, born Caswell Co., unknown.

William Wood, black, 24, born Caswell Co., unknown.

Frances Wood, black, 20, born Caswell Co., consumption.

Edmund F. Hood, black, 18, born Caswell Co., rhumatism.

Where are they now? No. 9.

W.C. was born in Washington DC in the early 1960s.  He is descended from:

(1) Robert Aldridge [1819-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via John W. Aldridge [1851-1910, Wayne County]

(2) John Armwood [ca1800-??, Sampson County] via Louisa Armwood [1830-??, Sampson/Wayne County]

(3) Vicey Artis [1810-ca1868, Greene/Wayne County] via Adam T. Artis [1831-1919, Greene/Wayne County]

(4) Mary Eliza Balkcum [1829-1924, Duplin/Wayne County]

(5) Michael Carter [1824-??, Sampson County] via Marshall Carter [1850-1922, Sampson/Wayne County]

(6) Sarah Greenfield [Wayne County]

(7) Patsey Henderson [ca1795-??, Onslow County] via James Henderson [1815-ca1890] via John H. Henderson [1861-1924]

(8) Jesse Jacobs [1822-1902, Sampson/Wayne County] via Frances Jacobs [1859-1937, Sampson/Wayne County]

(9) Winnie Medlin [ca1810-ca1905, Wayne County]

(10) James Simmons [ca1798-ca1860, Sampson/Wayne County] via Bryant Simmons [1832-ca1900, Wayne County] via Sarah E. Simmons [1862-1930, Wayne County]

(11) Gray Winn [1818-1850, Wayne County] via Elizabeth Winn [1836-??, Wayne County]

Slightly tinged.

Ann Revels, formerly Ann Chesnutt, filed claim #20191 with the Southern Claims Commission.  She was 55 years old and lived near Fayetteville, where she cultivated 15 acres of land.

“I had one son that left Fayetteville about 1852.  He went to Texas.  I had not heard from him for 2 years before the war commenced. … I then had a letter from him in Kentucky he said he had been in the confederate army but he did not say whether by compulsion or how.  I did not contribute anything for his support or military equipments.”

“I was not married during the war but I married in 1867. … I have 6 children: George Washington aged 42 years today if living.  Andrew Jackson aged 40 years he was 2 1/2 years in the United States Army during the war he went in the Army from Ohio.  Sophia aged 37 years.  Mary Ann aged 30 years.  Dallas aged 25 years.  Amanda Chesnutt aged 17 years.  George Washington I have not heard from for about 3 years.  The balance of my children are living in and within 10 miles of Fayetteville.”

“I owned the property before I married my husband.  I was born free.  I made what I had by my hard work.”

Witnesses were: David A. Bryant, 50, Fayetteville farmer; Albert Hammons, 58, Fayetteville carpenter; William H. Haithcock, 46, Fayetteville carpenter (who testified that Ann “prayed the United States government might whip out the south and liberate the slaves.”  Ann’s husband, Jonathan Revels, a 51 year-old farmer, testified that he and Ann were married in 1867 and stated that he was employed by Ann “pretty much all the time especially farming season from 1861 till the Army came.”

William S. Taylor, 25, painter, and Mary B. Taylor, 53 and a second cousin to Ann, who lived about 300 yards away.

“The claimant was a single woman during the war and owned the property in her own right.  She has since married Revels who is a white man. She was slightly tinged with negro blood.”

Ann Chesnutt Revels was the grandmother of writer Charles W. Chesnutt.

The 1870 censustaker of Cross Creek township, Cumberland County, considered Jonathan Revels to be colored and listed him, wife Ann and stepdaughter Amanda Chesnutt as mulatto. 

[Bizarre Side Note No. 1 — Amanda Chesnutt married Robert Holliday and had a son, Robert Sumner Holliday, in 1873.  Robert graduated Shaw University, then medical school at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania.  He set up practice in Statesville NC, where he met and in 1918 married Mary Charlton of West Virginia, a Hampton Institute graduate who served as Iredell County’s supervisor of colored schools.  Mary Charlton Holliday became an abiding mentor to my grandmother, Margaret B. Colvert Allen (1908-2010), and encouraged her to attend her alma mater.  My grandmother met my grandfather at Hampton Institute (now University) and all five of their children, plus three grandchildren, matriculated there.]

Surnames: Sampson County, 1850.

The following surnames are found among free people of color listed in the 1850 census of Sampson County:

ALMONDS, ANDREWS, ARMWOOD, BARFOOT, BEGMAN, BELL, BIZZELL, BLACKWELL, BREWINGTON, BRYAN, BURNET, CALDWELL, CARTER, CHANCE, COOPER, DECKS, DUDLEY, DUNCAN, ELLIS, FAIRCLOTH, GOFF, GOODMAN, HAISE/HAYS, HALL, HATCHER, HARDIN, JACKSON, JACOBS, JOHNSON, JONES, KING, MANLEY, MANUEL, MAINER, MATLAN, MATTHEWS, MOZINGO, NEWSOM, PARKER, ROWELL, SCOTT, SIMMONS, TEW, THOMAS, TYLER, WEST, WHITFORD, WIGGINS, WILLIAMS, WILSON and WINN.

Freedom/unfreedom, part 2.

On 13 February 1788, Mary Crooms, a mulatto orphan approximately 2 years old, bound to Curtis Ivey until age 21 to learn to spin and sew.

On 9 February 1789, the Court ordered that Stephen Stanley, to whom a certain child sworn by a certain Mary Blackwell, be discharged from his recognizance and fine, it appearing to the satisfaction of the court that the child is mulatto.

On 10 November 1789, Negro Robin freed by Michael King for sundry and meritorious services, agreeable to an Act of Assembly.

On 14 November 1792, Shadrack Clements, mulatto boy formally bound as apprentice to James Spiller, has served his time and is now freed.

On 10 November 1795, Leavy Heathcock, mulatto boy about 5 years old, bound to Jesse Lee until age 21 to learn to be a cooper.

On 9 August 1796, the children of Hannah Williams, a free mulatto, who are base-born, named Charlotte, Olin and John, bound out to Felix Hines, Claborn Ivey and Patrick Carr, respectively, each child to get one year of schooling and bound till age 21.

On 14 February 1797, Jacob Williams, free negro child about 8 years old, son of Lucrita Williams, base begotten, bound to Thomas Sowell until 21.

On 9 May 1797, John Williams, free negro boy about 5 years old, bound to Robert Butler.

Minutes, Sampson County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions.