Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Tag: Spaulding

Spaulding’s farm.

William Spaulding.  30 improved acres, 670 unimproved acres, value $700. Implements valued at $25. One horses. 6 milch cows. 1 ox. 6 other cattle. 19 sheep. 15 swine. Livestock valued at $156. 125 bushels, Indian corn. 400 lbs., rice. 2 lbs., tobacco. 20 lbs., wool. 10 bushels, peas and beans. 100 bushels, Irish potatoes. 15 lbs., butter. Household utensils valued at $10. Slaughtered animals valued at $75.

1850 agricultural schedule, Columbus County. [Sidenote: Spaulding’s household was listed in the population schedule of Bladen County, rather than Columbus. — LYH]

Permission to build a saw and gristmill.

Ord. that William Spalden have leave to Build a Saw & griss Mill in Sd County on Slade Swamp about 150 yds above Rooty Branch.

November Term, 1837, Minutes of Columbus County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions,  North Carolina State Archives.

George Henry White.


GEORGE HENRY WHITE (December 18, 1852 – December 28, 1918) was an attorney, the Republican U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1897 and 1901, and a banker. He is considered the last African-American Congressman of the Jim Crow era, one of twenty to be elected in the late nineteenth century from the South.

White was born in Rosindale, Bladen County, North Carolina, where his natural mother may have been a slave.  His father Wiley Franklin White was a free person of color of Scots-Irish and African ancestry, who was a laborer in a turpentine camp. George had an older brother, John, and their father may have purchased their freedom.  In 1857 Wiley White married Mary Anna Spaulding, a granddaughter of Benjamin Spaulding. Born into slavery as the son of a white plantation owner, Spaulding had been freed as a young man and worked to acquire more than 2300 acres of pine woods, which he apportioned to his own large family.

White studied at Howard University. He graduated in 1877 and was hired as a principal at a school in New Bern. He studied law in the city as an apprentice under former Superior Court Judge William J. Clarke and was admitted to the North Carolina bar in 1879.

In 1880 White ran as a Republican candidate from New Bern and was elected to a single term in the North Carolina House of Representatives. He returned to politics in 1884, winning election to the North Carolina Senate from Craven County. In 1886, he was elected solicitor and prosecuting attorney for the second judicial district of North Carolina, a post he held for eight years. Though he considered running for Congress, he deferred to his brother-in-law Henry Plummer Cheatham, who was elected to the US House in 1890.

White was a delegate to the 1896 and 1900 Republican National Conventions. In 1896 he was elected to the U.S. Congress representing the predominantly black Second District from his residence in Tarboro, defeating white Democratic incumbent Frederick A. Woodard of Wilson. In 1898 White was re-elected in a three-way race. In a period of increasing disfranchisement of blacks in the South, he was the last of five African Americans in Congress during the Jim Crow era.

On January 20, 1900, White introduced the first bill in Congress to make lynching a federal crime to be prosecuted by federal courts; it died in committee. A month later, as the House was debating issues of territorial expansion, White defended his bill by giving examples of crimes in the South. Arguing that conditions in the region had to “provoke questions about …national and international policy,” he said, “Should not a nation be just to all her citizens, protect them alike in all their rights, on every foot of her soil, in a word, show herself capable of governing all within her domain before she undertakes to exercise sovereign authority over those of a foreign land—with foreign notions and habits not at all in harmony with our American system of government? Or, to be more explicit, should not charity first begin at home?”

White delivered his final speech in the House on January 29, 1901: “This is perhaps the Negroes’ temporary farewell to the American Congress, but let me say, Phoenix-like he will rise up some day and come again. These parting words are in behalf of an outraged, heart-broken, bruised and bleeding, but God-fearing people; faithful, industrious, loyal, rising people – full of potential force.”

After White left office, no other black American would serve in Congress until Oscar De Priest was elected in 1928. No African-American was elected to Congress from North Carolina until 1992.

Adapted from Wikipedia. Photo courtesy of

In the 1860 census of Columbus County: Willey F. White, 39, farmer, born Pitt County; wife M.A., 20, and children John W., 14, and W.F., 7, plus W.T. Freeman, 7.

[Sidenotes: (1) George H. White’s secretary during his Washington years was William S. Hagans, son of Napoleon Hagans and nephew of my great-great-grandmother Louvicey Artis Aldridge.  (2) My junior high school in Wilson NC was named after Frederick A. Woodard. — LYH]

Free-Issue Death Certificates: SPAULDING.

Emaline Blanks.  Died 21 January 1929, Whites Creek, Bladen County. Colored. Widow of Sam Blanks. Born 1838 in NC to Iver Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Whites Creek. Informant, John Blanks, Clarkton NC.

Angeline Campbell.  Died 31 December 1921, Whites Creek, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Widow of Dan Campbell. Born about 1848, Columbus County, to Iver Spaulding and Mary [illegible]. Buried Mitchell graveyard.  Informant, Israel Campbell.

Delila Spaulding.  Died 4 Jul 1920, Whites Creek, Bladen County. Colored. Married to Henry W. Spaulding. Born 1860 to Ben J. Moore and Mary C. Moore. Buried Mitchell Graveyard. Informant, U. Steph. Moore, Clarkton NC.

In the 1850 census of Cape Fear South West Side, Bladen County: Iver Spaulding, 28, farmer; wife Mary, 23; children Henry W., 6, Emeline, 5, and John W., 3, and Angeline Spaulding, 1; William, 17, and Daniel Jacobs, 20; and John Freeman, 15.

Lucy J. Blanks.  Died 6 May 1915, Welchs Creek, Columbus County.  Black.  Widow. Day laborer. Born about 1860, Columbus County to David Spaulding and Mary J. Ransome.  Buried Welchs Creek.  Informant, R.O. Spaulding.

Henry Spaulding. Died 4 October 1924, Whiteville, Welch Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Deliah Spaulding. Farmer. Age 72. Born Welch Creek to David Spaulding and unknown mother.  Buried Mitchell Cemetery.  Informant, Stephen More.

Robt. O. Spaulding. Died 12 December 1936, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Jane Tucker Spaulding. Preacher and farmer. Born 11 December 1849, Columbus County to David Spaulding and Mary Ransom. Buried Mitchel cemetery. Informant, Al Spaulding.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: David Spaulding, 21, wife Mary, 20, and son Robt. O., 6 months, plus Lydia Webb, 9.

Caldonia Freeman.  Died 12 June 1922, Bogue, Columbus County. Black. Widow of James O. Freeman. Born 1 June 1842, Elkton NC, to John Spaulding and Penelope Moore, both of Elkton. Buried Mitchell cemetery.  Informant, Jonathan Spaulding.

Jonathan Spaulding. Died 10 November 1926, Whiteville, Columbus County.  Colored. Married to “Bettie Ann.” Age 70.  Born Bladen County to John Spaulding and unknown mother.  Buried Mitchell cemetery.

Delila Spauldwin.  Died 18 August 1921, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Henry D. Spauldwin. Born 10 May 1850 to Jno. Spauldwin and Penny Smith.  Buried Mitchels Cem. Informant, A.D. Carter, uncle.

In the 1850 census of Cape Fear South West Side, Bladen County: John Spaulding, 33, farmer; wife Penelopy, 26; and children Caledonia, 8, Delphia, 6, Elvy, 5, and Edith, 2.  In the 1860 census of Bladen County: John Spaulding, 43, farmer; wife Penelope, 35; and children Caladonia, 18, Delphia, 17, Elvy, 14, E.M., 13, Delila, 9, and Penny, 2; plus Mariah More, 9.

J.A. Spaulding.  Died 10 April 1911, Salisbury, Rowan County. Resided 309 S. Vanderford. Negro. Married. Baptist minister. Born 12 Oct 1856, Columbus County, to Benjamin Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Oaksdale cemetery, Salisbury. Informant, Mrs. Lulu Spaulding Kelsey, Salisbury.

Annie J.T. Spaulding. Died 17 April 1927, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Robt. O. Spaulding. Born 29 August 1857, Columbus County, to Benj. Spaulding of Columbus County and Maria Spaulding of Bladen County. Informant, Robt. O. Spaulding.

Henry Ivan Spaulding.  Died 21 March 1929, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Fannie Spaulding. Age 65 years, 5 months, 20 days. Farmer. Born Columbus County to Benj. Spaulding of Columbus County and Maria Lowry of Robeson County. Buried Mitchel cemetery.  Informant, Jack Spaulding.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Benj. Spaulding Jr., 23, wife Maria, 20, and daughter Frances, 2, plus Daniel Webb, 5, and George Freeman, 6. In the 1860 census of Columbus County, Benj. Spaulding, 35, farmer; wife Mariah, 34 (born Cumberland County); and children F.E., 12, M., 10, B., 7, John, 5, A.J.L., 3, and Rhoda, 1; plus Daniel Webb, 16 (born Brunswick County.)

Amanda Moore.  Died 14 November 1914, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Negro. Widow. Born 7 April 1849 to Amanuel Spaulding and Amanda Spaulding. Informant, Maggie Armstrong, Clarkton.

Andrew Thomas Spaulding. Died 17 July 1934, Whiteville, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Mariah Spaulding.  Age 75 years, 11 months. Farmer.  Born NC to Emmenel Spaulding and Susa Spries.  Buried Mitchell cemetery. Informant, Anna Dora Carter.

B.M. Spaulding. Died 5 Mar 1921, W. Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Farmer. Born 7 January 1845 to Emanuel Spaulding and Susan Spaulding. Buried Mitchel cemetery.

Evrit Freeman. Died 2 June 1942, Welchs Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Born Oct 1860, Columbus County, to John R.  Freeman and Sarah Jane Spauldin. Buried Mitchel Field.  Informant, Hanes Freeman.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Manual Spaulding, 37, farmer; wife Susan, 30, and children Sarah J., 12, Mary A., 10, Anna E., 8, Benj., 6, Madalaine, 4, Amanda, 1; plus Wm. Chavas, 2, and Wm. Skipper, 30.  In the 1860 census of Columbus County, Emanuel Spaulding, 48, farmer; wife Susan, 35; and children A.E., 18, Benj., 16, M., 14, Amanda, 11, Lany, 9, and A. T., 1.

Isabella Spaulding. Died 7 November 1932, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widow of Iver Spaulding. Age 82. Born Columbus County to unknown father and Tierce Moore.  Buried Mitchell cemetery. “Casket shipped here from Ga.” Informant, L.L. Spaulding.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Benj. J. Moore, 64, farmer; wife Martha, 60; and children and grandchildren Thursey, 30, Owen, 17, James and John, 15, Benj., 12, Aaron, 8, Hardy, 12, Lucy A., 7, Isbel, 5, Sarah J., 3, and Maria, 4 months.

John W. White. Died 11 December 1920, Welches Creek, Columbus County.  Colored. Married to Etta White. Born 8 August 1848.  Farmer.  Born to Wiley White and Mary Spaulding.  Buried Mitchel Sem.

In the 1860 census of Columbus County: Willey F. White, 39, farmer (born Pitt County) with M.A., 20, John W., 14, and W.F. White, 7, plus W.S. Freeman, 7.

Benjamin Spaulding (1773-1862) was born into slavery in Duplin County. He married Edith Delphi Jacobs (1786-1871), who bore him ten children: William (1810-1883), Emmanuel (1813-1872), Armistead (1814-1890), Armstrong, John (1817-1894), Iver (1819-1886), Anna Eliza (1822-1906), Benjamin Jr. (1824-1864), David (1829-1864) and Henry (1831-1906).

Though Benjamin Spaulding was not formally freed by Samuel Swindale, Jr. until 1835, he lived essentially as a free man for many years before, as evidenced in census records and deed records.  He and Edith had several prominent descendants, including Dr. Aaron Moore (1863-1923), co-founder of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Mechanics and Farmers Bank, and Lincoln Hospital in Durham, and Charles C. Spaulding (1874-1952), who led North Carolina Mutual’s expansion in the first half of the 20th century.

The Benjamin and Edith Spaulding Descendants Association maintains a website at