Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Tag: free people of color

Navy deserter.

DESERTED, from the U.S. Gun boat No. 150 ELIJAH BRENT, alias WILLIAMS a dark mulatto man about 5 feet, 5 or 6 inches high much pitted with the small pock, walks erect about 22 or 23 years of age slow of speech –  hails from Charleston where he says his mother and relations reside.  Ten dollars Reward will be given to any person who will take up said deserter and deliver him to any Officer of the U.S. or place him in jail.  T.N. GAUTIER, commanding Naval Officer.  July 24 – tf. 

Wilmington Gazette, 2 Oct 1813, NC Newspaper Digitation Project, North Carolina State Archives Historic Newspaper Archive.

Surnames: Bertie County, 1850.


Free-Issue Death Certificates: NC-Born Michiganders, no. 2.

Mary Allen.  Died 26 Nov 1876, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Black. Married. Born about 1791 in NC to John and Mary Oxyndine.

Alexander Bass. Died 26 July 1900, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Mulatto. Married at age 17.  Parent of 11 children.  Born 14 Dec 1819 in NC to Joseph Bass and Temperance Chavous, both of NC. Buried Bethel cemetery.  Informant, M. Bass, Day, Michigan.

Irena Higgins.  Died 20 Oct 1919, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Colored. Widow. Age 75 years, 11 months. Born in NC to Alexander Bass and Clarkey Wilson, both of NC. Buried Mount Zion cemetery.  Informant, Augusta Aurelia Higgins, Cassopolis.

In the 1850 census of Salt Creek, Franklin County, Indiana: Alexander Bass, 25, born NC; wife Clica, 27; and children Lucinda, 12; Delilah, 10; Aurora, 6; Smith, 4; and Ezekiel, 5 mos.  Clica and the children were born in SC, except the baby, born in Indiana.

Zipporah Boone.  Died 9 Dec 1908, Niles, Berrien, Michigan. Widowed.  Black. Born about 1844 in NC to Wyatt Manuel.

In the 1850 census of Northern District of Sampson County: Wiat Manuel, 40; wife Charlotte, 33; children Marshal, 16, Martha, 13, Thomas, 12, Alman, 10, Mary, 8, Sophoy, 6, Kilby, 3, and Efferson, 2 months.  In the 1860 census of Linton, Vigo County, Indiana:  Wyatt Manuel, 50, wife Charlotte, 43, and children Allman, 20, Zilphaah, 16, Kilby, 14, Efferson, 10, Silvany, 8, Oskin, 5, Whitfield, 2, and Statford, 2 months. The last four children were born in Indiana; the others in NC.

Clarenda Goens. Died 4 March 1908, Covert, Van Buren County, Michigan. Mulatto. Married first at age 22. Parents of 7 children; 5 living. Born 5 May 1835, in Vigo County IN to Wiley  Walden and Sarah Wilson, both of NC. Buried in Covert.  Informant, W.S. Walden.

In the 1850 census of Otter Creek, Vigo County, Indiana: Wiley Walden, 40, Sarah, 36, Milton, 17, Carolina, 14, Clarkson, 12, Thomas E., 10, Ann, 9, Nancy A., 9, Fanny, 7, John F., 3, Winfield, 1.

Clarenda Walden married Stephen Goins, 30 Dec 1858, Vigo County Indiana.

Jordon P. Hunt.  Died 15 July 1911, Buchanan. Berrier County, Michigan.  Colored.  Widower. Laborer. Born July 1840, North Carolina to Daniel Hunt and unknown mother.  Buried Miles, Michigan. Informant, Victor Prophet.

Register of (NC-born) Negroes & Mulattoes: Vigo County, Indiana.

Jethro Bass registered 2 July 1853.  Age 70. Mulatto. Born Granville County NC. Resided Lost Creek township.

Jethro Bass and Polly Mitchell married in Granville County NC on 3 Apr 1809.  In 1830, Jethro Bass headed a household of 13 free people of color in Vigo County, Indiana.  In the 1850 census of Harrison township, Vigo County, Indiana: Jathro Bass, 70, wife Polly, 60, Emily, 17, and Alfred Bass, 6.

Lucy Brooks registered 9 July 1853.  Age 35. Mulatto. Born Northampton County NC. Resided Harrison township.

John Brooks registered 9 July 1853. Age 45. Mulatto. Born Halifax County NC. Resided Harrison township.

In the 1850 census of Harrison, Vigo County, Indiana: John Brooks, 42, Lucinda, 32, Kinchen, 12, Benjamin, 10, Amanda, 8, William, 6, and Augustes, 7 months.  John and Lucinda were born in NC; the children, in Indiana.

George Evans registered 2 July 1853. Age 49. Mulatto. Born Randolph County NC. Resided Lost Creek township.

Solomon Jackson. Registered 16 June 1853. Age 45. Negro. Born Richmond County NC. Resided Terre Haute.

John Mathews. Registered 18 June 1853. Age 36. Mulatto. Born NC. Resided Terre Haute.

In the 185o census of Harrison, Vigo County: John Mathews, 35, wife Lucretia, 23, and Lucy D., 1, plus Amy Halaran, 21, born in Ireland, and George Beard, 26, born in Kentucky. 

George Mitchell. Registered 17 June 1853. Age 25. Negro. Born Rawlegh Way [Wake] County NC. Resided Terre Haute.

Jeremiah Mitchell. Registered 25 June 1853. Age 61. Negro.  Born Rawlegh Way [Wake] County NC. Resided Terre Haute.

Samuel Mitchel. Registered 25 June 1853. Age 50. Mulatto. Born Orange County NC. Resided Lost Creek township.

William Morgan. Registered 8 Aug 1853. Age 28. Mulatto. Born Louisburg NC. Resided Otter Creek township.

Henry A. Newsom. Registered 6 Aug 1853. Age 35. Negro. Born Greene County NC. Resided Harrison township.

In 1851, when the Indiana General Assembly enacted its second state constitution, it included a provision, Article XIII, prohibiting any Negro or mulatto from entering or settling in the state. To enforce this provision, county clerks were ordered to register Negroes and mulattos already living in Indiana. This post abstracts Vigo County registrants reported born in North Carolina. 

Vigo County Register of Negroes and Mulattoes, Indiana State Archives.

They are bound to support their bastard children.

State v. John L. Lee, 29 NC 265 (1847).

On appeal from Craven County Superior Court, the issue in this case was whether John Lee, after having been tried and convicted of bastardy, could move to quash the proceedings against him on the grounds that Catharine Curtis, the mother of the child, was a woman of color and therefore incompetent to testify against a white man.  The verdict: too late.

State v.  Thomas Long, 31 NC 488 (1849).

On appeal from Martin County.  In May 1848, Lucinda Simpson, then pregnant, swore that the father of her child was Thomas Long. Long moved to dismiss proceedings against him on the grounds that Simpson was a woman of mixed blood within the fourth degree and therefore incompetent to give testimony against him.  The Court was satisfied that in fact she was of mixed blood and dismissed the case.  In October 1848, on Simpson’s oath, another warrant for the same pregnancy issued for Long.  These proceedings were dismissed based upon the earlier finding.  The Supreme Court held that the prior judgment was binding and the second case rightfully quashed and noted that the better course would have been an appeal. 

State v. Williamson Haithcock, 33 NC 32 (1850).

On appeal from Orange County.  Williamson Haithcock, an admitted free negro, was charged with bastardy by a white woman.  Haithcock’s counsel moved to quash on the grounds that bastardy laws did apply to such a case. The Supreme Court: “We are at a loss to conceive of any reason why the defendant should be exempted from the operation of the bastardy laws, merely because he is a free negro.  Free negroes are capable of holding property, they can sue and be sued, and are bound to support their bastard children, whether begotten a free white woman or free black woman.  They can set up no ‘exclusive privilege’ in this behalf.”

Free-Issue Death Certificates: HENDERSON.

Marguriet Henderson.  Died 17 July 1915, Brogden, Wayne County. Black. Age 82. Born Sampson County to an unknown father and Margaret Bowkin.  Informant, Lucian Henderson.

In the 1860 census of Westbrooks, Sampson County: Lewis Henderson, 25, mulatto, turpentine laborer, wife Margaret, 26, and children Lewis T., 4, James L., 3, and Isabella J., 4 mos. [James L. is Lucian Henderson, “Lution,” below. Lewis and Margaret were my great-great-great-grandparents. — LYH.]

Alex’r Henderson.  Died 13 June 1916, Goldsboro, Wayne County. Colored. Married. Age 56. Born Wayne County to Stephen Henderson and unknown mother. Buried Elmwood cemetery.  Informant, Mary Henderson.

In the 1860 census of Westbrooks, Sampson County, James Henderson, mulatto, carpenter, wife Eliza and children Anna J., Susan, Hepsie, and Alexander. [Alex Henderson’s father was James, not Stephen, Henderson. His mother was Eliza (or Louisa) Armwood. — LYH]

Lution Henderson.  Died 22 June 1934, Brogden, Wayne County. Colored. Married to Susan Henderson. Age 75 years, 3 months. Farmer. Born Wayne County to Louis Henderson of Wayne County and Maggie Hill of Sampson County.  Informant, Jonnie Carter, Dudley.

John Henderson.  Died 8 August 1924, Goldsboro, Wayne County.  Colored.  Married.  Age 63. Farmer. Born Sampson County to James Henderson of Onslow County and [blank] Armwood of Sampson County.  Buried Dudley NC. Informant, Sarrah Henderson.

In the 1870 census of Faisons, Duplin County, James Henderson, 52, farmer, wife Eliza and children Ann, 17, Susan, 16, Hepsey, 14, Aleck, 13, John H., 11, Nancy, 6, and Betty, 3, plus son James Henderson, 27, and boarders James Ammons and Thomas Cox.  [John and Alex Henderson were brothers, and Lewis Henderson (Margaret’s husband) was their half-brother.]

Petition to free a dutyful wife.

State of North Carolina, Northampton County court, June term 1801.

To the worshipful the Justices of said court, the humble petition Len Kenchen free Negroe humbly complaining Shewing that he the said Len, upwards to ten years ago, purchased of a Mr. Robert Armstead, of Scotland Neck, a negroe woman called Rebecca for the sum of £45 Virg Curcy, and which said negroe, your petr. Len, had as wife, upwards of 15 years previous to said purchase, and until the present day.  And your petr. further shews that he the said Len and the said Rebecca previous to said purchase and until this date has always behaved herself as a dutyful wife and as a faithful servant.  Your petitioner therefore prays your worships will agreeable to the spirit and meaning of the act of assembly in such case Made, liberate and set free the said Rebecca, and your petitioner as in duty bound will pray   /s/ J.H. Keys

Records of Slaves and Free Persons of Color, Northampton County Records, North Carolina State Archives.

Halifax County Marriages: C

Caps, Anson and Margaret Dempsey, 15 July 1850. Henry Joyner, bondsman.

Carlisle, Elisha and Jane Portice, 27 December 1849. John Holland, bondsman.

Carlisle, Joseph Jno. and Elizabeth Portis, 28 January 1852. John Henry Harris, bondsman.

Carlisle, Levy and Penny Strickland, 19 Feb 1822. James Simmons, bondsman.

Carter, Frederick and Margaret Mills, 22 May 1851. Taylor Harriss, bondsman.

In the 1850 census of Halifax County: Fred Carter, 40 stonemason; Margaret Mills, 22; and Nancy Mills, 7 months.

Carter, Jordan and Louisa Frances (alias Ferguson), 6 June 1850.

In the 1850 census, Halifax County: Jordan Carter, 30, laborer, wife Louisa, 25, and children Tom, 5, John, 4, and Indianna, 2.

Carter, Randal and unnamed, 14 May 1831. Thourogood Dempsey, bondsman.

Carter, Willey and Sylla Mills, 24 September 1825. Henry C. Jones, bondsman.

Carter, William and Polly Evans, 21 Dec 1826. Kinchen Toney, bondsman.

Chavers, Solomon and Rebecca Daniels, 27 Dec 1822. Edward King, bondsman.

Chavers, William and Anje James, 21 Aug 1822. William Clinton, bondsman.

Chavis, Herbert and Louisa Peace, 26 April 1820. Carter Harrison, bondsman.

Coleman, James and Susan Lynch, 19 December 1848. Henry Coleman, bondsman.

In the 1850 census of Halifax County: James Coleman, 25, farmer, and wife Susan, 22. James reported owning real estate valued at $8. Also, Henry Coleman, 32, laborer, wife Martha, 26, and children Sarah, 6, Eliza, 4, and Lucy, 1.

Coley, Belfield and Mary A.E. Ivey, 2 Mar 1856. Isaac N. Faulcon, bondsman.

In the 1850 census of Halifax County: Belfield Coley, 15, and Geo. Baker, 9, living alone.

Coley, Dennis and Mary E. Mitchel, 12 January 1854.

Coley, Robert and Polly Mills, 16 May 1826. Jas. B. Pearson, bondsman.

Coley, Thos. and Sally A. Mitchell, 7 Jul 1851.

In the 1850 census of Halifax County: Thos. Coley, 22, and John Coley, 21, both boatman, living next door to Dennis Coley, 60, farmer, wife Dolly, 55, and children Sally, 30, Martha, 19, and Elias, 12.

Coley, Weldon and Cresy Baker, 14 February 1852.

In the 1860 census of Halifax County: Weldon Cooley, 50, farmer, wife Crecy, 46, spinner, and children Mary, 11, and Weldon, 9; plus Easton Cooley, 40, farm laborer.

Cousins, Francis and Panthae Liggins, 10 April 1854. John Mayhoe, bondsman.

Free-Issue Death Certificates: NC-born Michiganders.

Joseph C. Ash.  Died 17 Feb 1890, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Mulatto.  Married. Age about 60.  Born in NC to Harry and Louisa Ash.

Marmaduke Ash.  Died 7 April 1911, Calvin, Cass County Michigan. Colored. Age 81 years, 6 months, 2 days. Married at age 27. Parent of 13 children, of whom 7 are living. Born NC to Herrod Ash and Eliza Kerner, both of NC. Buried Chain Lake.  Informant, Louisa Ash, Cassopolis.

In the 1850 census of Perry, Logan County, Ohio: Eliza Ash, 45, and her children Joseph C., 22, Marmaduke, 21, Mary, 20, Wm. H., 18, Sarah J., 16, Bates, 15, Marshama, 10, Marquis, 8, Eliza, 7, Arrena, 6, and Martha, 3.  Eliza and her first four children were born in NC; the remainder in Ohio.

In the Consolidated List of All Persons Subject to Do Military Service in the Second Congressional District of Michigan: Joseph C. Ash, 36, and Marmaduke Ash, 35, both colored, born in NC, and residents of Calvin, Cass County. Beside Marmaduke’s name, under Remarks, “1/4 white.” Civil War Draft Registration Records, National Archives and Records Administration.

Wiley Chavous.  Died 1 April 1915, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Colored. Married. Farming. Age 63.  Born Indiana to Eli Chavous and Jane Locklayer, both of NC. Buried Calvin Center.  Informant, Louisa Jane Chavous.

In the 1860 census of Calvin, Cass County, Michigan: Eli Shaver, 35, wife Jane, and children Samford, 11, Willy, 9, Mary E., 6, Emeline, 3, and Martha, 3 months.  Eli and Jane were born in NC, Samford and Willy in Indiana, and the remaining children in Michigan.

Martha A. Dungey.  Died 28 Feb 1904, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Mulatto. Widow. 40-year resident of Calvin. Born 10 Oct 1845 in Virginia to Henry Liggins and Elizabeth Liggins, both of NC. Buried in Bethel cemetery, Cassopolis.

In the 1860 census, of Calvin, Cass County, Michigan: Henry Liggins, 55, wife Eliz., 35, and children Parthenia, 17, Rufus, 15, Martha, 13, Mary 12, Susan, 10, Emma, 8, Alexander, 5, M.L., 4, and David, 2. The censustaker recorded all as born in Virginia except the three youngest children.

Thomas S. Evans.  Died 23 April 1911, Porter, Cass County, Michigan. Colored. Widowed. Retired farmer. Born 5 Aug 1827 in NC to Thomas Evans and an unknown mother, both of NC.  Buried Chain Lake.  Informant, H.E. Wise, Bristol, Mich.

Emily Ann Evans.  Died Porter, 19 Sept 1907, Cass County, Michigan. Mulatto. Married. Age 73 years, 1 month, 14 days. Married at age 16.  Parent of 11 children; 8 living. Born in NC to Reddin Chavious and Francis Harris, both NC. Buried Chain Lake.

George Eaton Evans.  Died 19 Sept 1898, Porter, Cass County, Michigan. Colored. Single. Farmer. Age 41 years, 5 days. Born in NC to Thos. S. Evans and Emily A. Harris, both of NC.

Floria Ann Goins. Died 3 Aug 1908 in Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Colored. Age 72 years. Married at age 15. Parents of 15 children. Born in NC to Silas Oxendine and Ali Hunt, both of NC. Buried at Bethel. Informant, Wm. Goins.

In the 1860 census of Robeson County: Alx’d Oxendine, 36, Amy, 27, Mary J., 12, Henery J., 11, Minerva, 8, Flora A., 6, Jiles, 3, Catharine, 6 months, and Silas, 45.

Rabbi Goins.  Died 22 March 1914, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Colored. Widower. Parents of 2 children, both living. Born Nov 1848 in NC to Jesse Goins and Roxey Goins, both of NC.  Laborer.  Informant, Asa Goins.

Willis Haithcock.  Died 3 Aug 1898, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Mulatto. Married at age 24. Parents of 16 children; 9 living.  Age 72 years, 2 months, 24 days. Farmer. Born in NC to Burrell Archer and Sarah Haithcock, both of NC. Buried Chane Lake cemetery.

In the 1850 census of Jefferson, Cass County, Michigan: NC-born Willis Hathcock, 24, in the household of white farmer Peter Marmon.

Berry Haithcox.  Died 16 March 1904, Porter, Cass County, Michigan. Married at age 45. Three children; all living. Born 1825 in NC to Mills Haithcox and Sarrah Byrd, both of NC. Informant, Roberta Haithcox, Vandalia, Michigan.

In the 1850 census, of Jefferson, Logan County, Ohio: Mills Heathcock, 50, wife Sarah, 40, and children Dica, 25, Charlotte, 18, Bartlett, 16, Littleberry, 21, Sarah E., 8, John Mitchell, 7, Upper J., 5 and Permelia, 2.  Mills was born in Virginia. All others, except the Ohio-born last child, were born in NC.

Ruberta Haithcock.  Died 12 Nov 1916, Porter, Cass County, Michigan. Widow. Mulatto. Born 30 Mar 1837 in NC to William Tabron and Beda Tabron. Buried Mount Zion. Informant, Beda Haithcox.

Lovina Hathcox.  Died 6 April 1905, Calvin, Cass County, Michigan. Mulatto. Widowed. Born 16 Aug 1834, Logan County, Ohio, to Green Allen and Angeline Wade, both of NC. Buried Chain Lake cemetery. Informant, A.S. Haithcock, Cassopolis.

Rebecca Ann Lawson. Died 19 May 1920, St. Joseph, Berrien County, Michigan. Colored.  Married to James H. [Lawson.] Born 24 Nov 1849 in NC to George Artis and Susan Allen, both of NC. Buried Cassopolis. Informant, Jas. H. Lawson, Benton Harbor.

In the 1860 census of Porter, Cass County, Michigan: Geo. W. Artis, 45, carpenter, S., 34, M.E., 17, Sarah J., 14, E.A., 12, Rebecca, 10, M.F., 7, Geo. H., 2, and S.E., 4 months. 

Death certificates, Library of Michigan; US population schedules.

Surnames: Richmond County, 1850.