Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

Category: Descendants

Where are they now?: No. 19.

A.T. was born in the mid-1960s in Elizabeth City NC.  She is descended from the following free people of color:

Stephen Newby (ca1800-ca1865) > John D. Newby (1834-ca1905) > Arthur Newby (1859-ca1925)

Millie Dempsey (??-??) > Rhoda Dempsey (ca1800-ca1865)

Old-issue, heartily detested.

“Probably the largest group of free negroes to be found in North Carolina was the exclusive ‘old issue’ settlement known far and wide as The Meadows, near Ransom’s Bridge on Fishing Creek in Halifax County. The people still bear the appellation ‘old issue,’ and are heartily detested by the well-to-do negroes in the adjoining counties.”

Rosser Howard Taylor, The Free Negro in North Carolina, 1920.

According to North Carolina Gazetteer, Ransom’s Bridge is a “community at the junction of Nash, Franklin, Warren and Halifax Counties, formerly thriving, now sparsely settled.  There is a bridge here over Fishing Creek, and a post office by the time existed as early as 1822 and as recently as 1882.  This area of North Carolina was the center of gold mining activity before the Civil War.”  Ransom’s Bridge is near present-day Hollister, and maps show roads — Richardson, Evans, Silvertown — bearing the names of free families of color.  These families and others, such as Mills and Lynch, make up the core of the Haliwa-Saponi Native American tribe, recognized by the state since 1953.

Free-Issue Death Certificates: SPAULDING.

Emaline Blanks.  Died 21 January 1929, Whites Creek, Bladen County. Colored. Widow of Sam Blanks. Born 1838 in NC to Iver Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Whites Creek. Informant, John Blanks, Clarkton NC.

Angeline Campbell.  Died 31 December 1921, Whites Creek, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Widow of Dan Campbell. Born about 1848, Columbus County, to Iver Spaulding and Mary [illegible]. Buried Mitchell graveyard.  Informant, Israel Campbell.

Delila Spaulding.  Died 4 Jul 1920, Whites Creek, Bladen County. Colored. Married to Henry W. Spaulding. Born 1860 to Ben J. Moore and Mary C. Moore. Buried Mitchell Graveyard. Informant, U. Steph. Moore, Clarkton NC.

In the 1850 census of Cape Fear South West Side, Bladen County: Iver Spaulding, 28, farmer; wife Mary, 23; children Henry W., 6, Emeline, 5, and John W., 3, and Angeline Spaulding, 1; William, 17, and Daniel Jacobs, 20; and John Freeman, 15.

Lucy J. Blanks.  Died 6 May 1915, Welchs Creek, Columbus County.  Black.  Widow. Day laborer. Born about 1860, Columbus County to David Spaulding and Mary J. Ransome.  Buried Welchs Creek.  Informant, R.O. Spaulding.

Henry Spaulding. Died 4 October 1924, Whiteville, Welch Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Deliah Spaulding. Farmer. Age 72. Born Welch Creek to David Spaulding and unknown mother.  Buried Mitchell Cemetery.  Informant, Stephen More.

Robt. O. Spaulding. Died 12 December 1936, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Jane Tucker Spaulding. Preacher and farmer. Born 11 December 1849, Columbus County to David Spaulding and Mary Ransom. Buried Mitchel cemetery. Informant, Al Spaulding.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: David Spaulding, 21, wife Mary, 20, and son Robt. O., 6 months, plus Lydia Webb, 9.

Caldonia Freeman.  Died 12 June 1922, Bogue, Columbus County. Black. Widow of James O. Freeman. Born 1 June 1842, Elkton NC, to John Spaulding and Penelope Moore, both of Elkton. Buried Mitchell cemetery.  Informant, Jonathan Spaulding.

Jonathan Spaulding. Died 10 November 1926, Whiteville, Columbus County.  Colored. Married to “Bettie Ann.” Age 70.  Born Bladen County to John Spaulding and unknown mother.  Buried Mitchell cemetery.

Delila Spauldwin.  Died 18 August 1921, Clarkton, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Henry D. Spauldwin. Born 10 May 1850 to Jno. Spauldwin and Penny Smith.  Buried Mitchels Cem. Informant, A.D. Carter, uncle.

In the 1850 census of Cape Fear South West Side, Bladen County: John Spaulding, 33, farmer; wife Penelopy, 26; and children Caledonia, 8, Delphia, 6, Elvy, 5, and Edith, 2.  In the 1860 census of Bladen County: John Spaulding, 43, farmer; wife Penelope, 35; and children Caladonia, 18, Delphia, 17, Elvy, 14, E.M., 13, Delila, 9, and Penny, 2; plus Mariah More, 9.

J.A. Spaulding.  Died 10 April 1911, Salisbury, Rowan County. Resided 309 S. Vanderford. Negro. Married. Baptist minister. Born 12 Oct 1856, Columbus County, to Benjamin Spaulding and unknown mother. Buried Oaksdale cemetery, Salisbury. Informant, Mrs. Lulu Spaulding Kelsey, Salisbury.

Annie J.T. Spaulding. Died 17 April 1927, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Robt. O. Spaulding. Born 29 August 1857, Columbus County, to Benj. Spaulding of Columbus County and Maria Spaulding of Bladen County. Informant, Robt. O. Spaulding.

Henry Ivan Spaulding.  Died 21 March 1929, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Married to Fannie Spaulding. Age 65 years, 5 months, 20 days. Farmer. Born Columbus County to Benj. Spaulding of Columbus County and Maria Lowry of Robeson County. Buried Mitchel cemetery.  Informant, Jack Spaulding.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Benj. Spaulding Jr., 23, wife Maria, 20, and daughter Frances, 2, plus Daniel Webb, 5, and George Freeman, 6. In the 1860 census of Columbus County, Benj. Spaulding, 35, farmer; wife Mariah, 34 (born Cumberland County); and children F.E., 12, M., 10, B., 7, John, 5, A.J.L., 3, and Rhoda, 1; plus Daniel Webb, 16 (born Brunswick County.)

Amanda Moore.  Died 14 November 1914, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Negro. Widow. Born 7 April 1849 to Amanuel Spaulding and Amanda Spaulding. Informant, Maggie Armstrong, Clarkton.

Andrew Thomas Spaulding. Died 17 July 1934, Whiteville, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower of Mariah Spaulding.  Age 75 years, 11 months. Farmer.  Born NC to Emmenel Spaulding and Susa Spries.  Buried Mitchell cemetery. Informant, Anna Dora Carter.

B.M. Spaulding. Died 5 Mar 1921, W. Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Farmer. Born 7 January 1845 to Emanuel Spaulding and Susan Spaulding. Buried Mitchel cemetery.

Evrit Freeman. Died 2 June 1942, Welchs Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widower. Born Oct 1860, Columbus County, to John R.  Freeman and Sarah Jane Spauldin. Buried Mitchel Field.  Informant, Hanes Freeman.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Manual Spaulding, 37, farmer; wife Susan, 30, and children Sarah J., 12, Mary A., 10, Anna E., 8, Benj., 6, Madalaine, 4, Amanda, 1; plus Wm. Chavas, 2, and Wm. Skipper, 30.  In the 1860 census of Columbus County, Emanuel Spaulding, 48, farmer; wife Susan, 35; and children A.E., 18, Benj., 16, M., 14, Amanda, 11, Lany, 9, and A. T., 1.

Isabella Spaulding. Died 7 November 1932, Welches Creek, Columbus County. Colored. Widow of Iver Spaulding. Age 82. Born Columbus County to unknown father and Tierce Moore.  Buried Mitchell cemetery. “Casket shipped here from Ga.” Informant, L.L. Spaulding.

In the 1850 census of Columbus County: Benj. J. Moore, 64, farmer; wife Martha, 60; and children and grandchildren Thursey, 30, Owen, 17, James and John, 15, Benj., 12, Aaron, 8, Hardy, 12, Lucy A., 7, Isbel, 5, Sarah J., 3, and Maria, 4 months.

John W. White. Died 11 December 1920, Welches Creek, Columbus County.  Colored. Married to Etta White. Born 8 August 1848.  Farmer.  Born to Wiley White and Mary Spaulding.  Buried Mitchel Sem.

In the 1860 census of Columbus County: Willey F. White, 39, farmer (born Pitt County) with M.A., 20, John W., 14, and W.F. White, 7, plus W.S. Freeman, 7.

Benjamin Spaulding (1773-1862) was born into slavery in Duplin County. He married Edith Delphi Jacobs (1786-1871), who bore him ten children: William (1810-1883), Emmanuel (1813-1872), Armistead (1814-1890), Armstrong, John (1817-1894), Iver (1819-1886), Anna Eliza (1822-1906), Benjamin Jr. (1824-1864), David (1829-1864) and Henry (1831-1906).

Though Benjamin Spaulding was not formally freed by Samuel Swindale, Jr. until 1835, he lived essentially as a free man for many years before, as evidenced in census records and deed records.  He and Edith had several prominent descendants, including Dr. Aaron Moore (1863-1923), co-founder of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Mechanics and Farmers Bank, and Lincoln Hospital in Durham, and Charles C. Spaulding (1874-1952), who led North Carolina Mutual’s expansion in the first half of the 20th century.

The Benjamin and Edith Spaulding Descendants Association maintains a website at

She was fully 5/8ths white.

“Facts in matter of James Lamms Children –

“Joe Horne – Great Grandmother of these children was Ezrit Locas _ She was about [sic] _ I think her father was a white man _ Grandmother was Wealthy Locas Think her father was a white man _ Know mother of children, Jane Lamm. Think her father was a white man _ said to be Van B. Carter _ Father of children James Lamm white _

“H.M. Rowe – Know Ezrit Locas _ she was fully 5/8 white _ her father a white man _ Grandmother is practically white. Her father was a white man. Mother of child, her father was a white man _ Jane Lamm father white _ Jane Lamm Great Grandmother was 5/8 white at least _ Grandmother _ Her father was Dallas Taylor a pure blooded white man _ Mother of child _ Her father pure blooded white man.”

This unsigned handwritten note is found among papers related to the matter of James Lamm v. J.S. Horne, Fred B. Boswell, A.A. Aycock, School Committeemen of Black Creek Township, filed in November Term, 1909, in Wilson County Superior Court.  Lamm complained that his children had been barred from the white public school in Black Creek, though they had attended for many years prior.  Based on the evidence above, a judge determined that the children, though descended from free women of color, were sufficiently white to attend white schools, and so ordered.  School Records, 1909; Wilson County Miscellaneous Records; North Carolina State Archives.

In the 1900 census of Black Creek, Wilson County: James Lamm, born 1837; wife Jane, 1869; and children Robert L., 1890, James C., 1892, Mamie, 1895 and Leona, 1897; all described as white.  Nearby: Wealthy Locas, born 1849, single, mother of eight (six living), and her children Zacariah, 1886, and Fannie, 1890; all black.  

Jane Carter Lamm died 21 February 1945 in Wilson, Wilson County.  Her death certificate lists her parents as Van Carter and Wealthy Joyner, and she is classified as white.

High-achieving descendants.

Commodore M. Reid.  “Rev. Commodore M. Reid now (1920), stationed at St. James M.E. Church, Winston-Salem, N.C., is a native of the Old North State, having been born in Cabarrus Co. August 9. 1889.  His father, James S. Reid, was also a minister of the Gospel, and his mother, before her marriage, was Margaret Boger.  His grandparents on the paternal side were Jerry and Mamie Reid and on the maternal side Jesse and Martha Boger. Rev. Reid’s father was free-born, but his mother was a slave before Emancipation.”

John Henry Clement.  “Rev. John Henry Clement, who for more than twenty years has been active in the religious and educations life of the State, resides at High Point.  He is a native of Davie Co., having been born at the old town of Mocksville, on March 5, 1869.  His father, Anderson Clement, was a laborer and a farmer and the boy was brought up to do all sorts of farm work.  His mother, who before her marriage, was Miss Martha Lanier, was a daughter of Bob Smith, who was free born.”

Robert James Frederick.  “Dr. Frederick was born at Warsaw, Duplin Co., April 24, 1886.  His father, John J. Frederick, was a carpenter, and was the son of Malcolm and Pennie Merritt.  The latter was a slave, but Malcolm Merritt was free born.”

Henry Pearson Kennedy.  “Dr. Henry Pearson Kennedy, a successful druggist and pharmacist of New Bern, has not found it necessary to go away from his native town in order to succeed.  … Still on the sunny side of thirty he has already made for himself an enviable place in the business and social life of New Bern, where he was born January 7, 1884.  His father, Henry P. Kennedy, was a contractor; he was the son of Lorenzo D. and Charlotte Kennedy. The former was free-born, but the latter was a slave.

George L. White.  “Like so many of the successful men of both races, Dr. Geo. L. White now (1920) stationed at Greenville, was born and reared on the farm.  He was born at Jacksonville , N.C., July 15, 1870.  His father, Edward White, was a farmer.  Edward White was the son of John and Mariah (Mantford) White, who lived to a ripe old age. Though free born, they became involved by insolvency and were sold for their debts.”

Charles Gaston Davis.  “Prof. Davis was born at the little hamlet of Cottonville, in Stanley [sic] Co., Sept. 15, 1880.  His father, Frank Davis, was born near the same place in 1834 and was the son of Jackson Davis, who lived to be seventy-eight, and his wife, Nancy Davis, who died at eighty.  Prof. Davis’ mother, before her marriage, Miss Judie Easley, who was born about 1830 and who was free-born.  She was the daughter of Harry and Celia Easley, both of whom lived to a ripe old age.”

James Monroe Henderson.  “He is a native of the old town of Concord, where he was born on Aug. 15, 1861, soon after the outbreak of the war which was to bring freedom and opportunity to him and to his people. His father, Henry A. Henderson, was a mechanic, and his mother’s maiden name was Miss Eliza Bell. John Bell was a free born, though his wife was a slave.”

Excerpted from History of the American Negro and his Institutions, Volume 4, Arthur Bunyan Caldwell, ed.

Where are they now? No. 18.

B.T. was born in the mid-1960s in Nash County NC.  He is descended from:

(1) Harriet Evans [1816-ca1890, Franklin County]

(2) Fronie Mills [1857-??, Nash County]

(3) Elizabeth Patrie [1834-ca1890, Franklin County]

(4) John Toney [1805-ca1890, Franklin County] via Joseph J. Toney [1848-??, Nash County]

(5) Jarrett Wilkins [1830-ca1890, Franklin County]

Where are they now? No. 17.

P.M. was born in the mid-1960s in Goldsboro NC.  She is descended from:

(1) Margaret Balkcum [1836-1915, Sampson/Wayne County]

(2) Patsey Henderson [ca1795-??, Onslow County] via James Henderson [1815-ca1885, Onslow/Sampson/Wayne County] via Lewis Henderson [1836-1912, Onslow/Sampson/Wayne County] via Ann Elizabeth Henderson [1862-1900, Wayne County]

(3) Susan Herring [ca1831-ca1890, Wayne County]

(4) James King [ca1817-ca1890, Wayne County] via Polly Ann King [1858-ca1925, Wayne County]

(5) Axey J. Manuel [1823-1885, Wayne County]

(6) Winnie Medlin

(7) Haywood Musgrave [c1805-ca1875, Wayne County] via Alfred Musgrave [ca1857-ca1925,Wayne County]

(8) Phereby Simmons [1772-ca1855, Bertie/Wayne County] via James Simmons [1798-1860, Wayne/Sampson County] via (a) George W. Simmons [ca1820-1919, Wayne County] via Hillary B. Simmons [1853-1941, Wayne County] and (b) Pennie Simmons [ca1825-??, Wayne County]

Where are they now? No. 15.

R.R. was born in Wilson NC in the early 1960s.  He is descended from:

(1) Vicey Artis [ca1805-ca1868, Greene/Wilson County] via Zilpha Artis [1828-ca1885, Greene/Wayne County]

(2) Benjamin Hagans

(3) Nancy Hall via Mozana Hall [ca1829-1914, Wayne County]

(4) Rhoda Reid [ca1795-ca1865, Wayne County] via John Reid [ca1826-ca1890, Wayne County] via William Reid [1851-1926, Wayne County]

(5) John Wilson [1821-ca1890, Wayne County] via Elizabeth Wilson [1864-1947, Wayne County]

Where are they now? No. 14.

B.M. was born in Queens NY in the early 1960s.  He is descended from:

(1) Raiford Brewington [1812-1896, Sampson County] via Polly Ann Brewington [-1890, Sampson/Wayne County]

(2) Millie Hale [1755-1855, Sampson County]

(3) Sion Hardin [1775-1850, Sampson County] via Zilphia Hardin [1794-1860, Sampson County]

(4) Jesse A. Jacobs [1822-1902, Sampson/Wayne County] via John R. Jacobs [1850-1922, Sampson/Wayne County]

(5) Nicholas Manuel [1750-1835, Sampson County] via Shadrach Manuel [1781-1860] via Bathsheba Manuel [1812-??, Sampson/Wayne County]


Where are they now? No. 13.

E.H. was born in Dudley NC in the late 1940s.  He is descended from these free people of color:

(1) Robert Aldridge [1819-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via John W. Aldridge [1851-1910, Wayne County]

(2) John Armwood [ca1800-??, Sampson County] via Louisa Armwood [1830-??, Sampson/Wayne County]

(3) Vicey Artis [1810-ca1868, Greene/Wayne County] via Adam T. Artis [1831-1919, Greene/Wayne County]

(4) Mary Eliza Balkcum [1829-1924, Duplin/Wayne County]

(5) Sarah Greenfield [ca1820-??, Duplin/Wayne County]

(6) Patsey Henderson [ca1795-??, Onslow County] via James Henderson [1815-ca1890] via John H. Henderson [1861-1924]

(7) Winnie Medlin [ca1810-ca1905, Wayne County]

(8) James Simmons [ca1798-ca1860, Sampson/Wayne County] via Bryant Simmons [1832-ca1900, Wayne County] via Sarah E. Simmons [1862-1930, Wayne County]

(9) Gray Winn [1818-1850, Wayne County] via Elizabeth Winn [1836-??, Wayne County]

(10) Levi Winn [ca1820-??, Duplin/Wayne County] via Mary Levi Winn [1846-??, Duplin/Wayne County]

(11) Washington Winn [ca1820-1899, Duplin/Wayne County] via Levi Winn [1842-??, Duplin/Wayne County]