Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

United States Colored Troops, no. 1.

28 U.S.C.T.  Nicholas Manuel.  Co. D, 28 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age 27, years; height, 5 feet 11 inches; complexion, yellow; eyes, black; hair, black; where born, Samson Co., NC; occupation, farmer.  Enlistment: when, Dec. 28, 1864; where, Lafayette, Ind.; by whom, Thos. Brown; term, 3 years.

This is possibly (1) the 12 year-old mulatto Nicholas Manuel listed in the household of Ismael and Martha Manuel in the Northern District of Sampson County and (2) the 31 year-old Nicholas Manual listed with wife Anna, 25, in Washington, Boone County, Indiana.

8 U.S.C.T.  Thomas Artis.  Co. A, 8 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age, 30 years; height, 6 feet 5 inches; complexion, colored; eyes, black; hair, black; where born, Wayne Co., NC; occupation farmer.  Enlistment: when, Mar 21, 1865; where, Wabash, Ind.; by whom, Capt. Cowgill; term, 1 year.

This is not the Thomas Artis, age 15, listed in the household of Celia Artis (his mother) in the 1850 census of the North Side of the Neuse River, Wayne County.  He is possibly the Thomas Artis, age 20, listed as a farmhand in the household of white farmer William Hooks in the same district.  He is likely the Thomas Artis, age 27, listed in the 1860 census of Reserve township, Parke County, Indiana, with wife Mary, 22, daughter Sarah C. (2) and “farmer boy” John Bass.  Thomas and Mary were born in NC; Sarah and John in Indiana. 

4 U.S.C.T.  Mathew Jones.  Co. F, 4 Reg’t U.S. Col’d Inf. appears on Company Descriptive Book of the organization named above. Description: age 32 years; height 5 feet 7 inches; complexion mulatto; eyes black; hair black; where born Nash Co., NC; occupation farmer.  Enlistment:  when, Aug. 30, 1864; where, Bournesville, Oh.; by whom, Joseph Bourgess; term, 1 year.

Matthew Jones, age 18, is listed with his mother Easter Jones and siblings in the household of white farmer Jacob Ing in the 1850 census of Nash County.  Ing was his father.  See earlier post.

Combined Military Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers, National Archives and Records Administration; federal population schedules.

A grazing cow and vegetables.

Asbury Reid filed claim #4303 with the Southern Claims Commission.  He was born free and raised in Gates County and was a 43 year-old farmer.  A cavalry unit took a cow grazing in the field and vegetables from his garden.  An infantry unit took bacon, poultry and hogs.  Alonzo Green, 28, and W.O. Green, 32, a farmer-mechanic, testified on his behalf.

Thirty-two year-old Asberry Reed is listed in the 1860 census of Gatesville district, Gates County, with C. Reed, 22, William Reed, 3,  John Reed, 2, and George Reed, 6 months; Conelius Price, 11, Charles Price, 11; and William Reed, 12. 

Free-Issue Death Certificates: CARROLL.

Bunion Carroll. Died 28 Feb 1916, Wilson, Wilson County. Colored. Married. Common laborer. Born 10 Apr 1858 in Stantonsburg to Grade Carroll and Susan Artis. Buried Wilson County.  Informant, Mrs. Fannie Carroll, Vance Street, Wilson.

In the 1860 census of Saratoga district, Wilson County: Etheldred Caraway [sic], 29, wife Susan, 25, and children Bunyan, 5, and Joseph Carroll, 3.

Ruffin C. Carroll.  Died 1 Dec 1926, Goldsboro. Colored. Widower.  Preacher.  Age 73.  Born in NC to Joe Carroll and Melvinie Carroll.  Buried Elmwood cemetery, Goldsboro.  Informant, Hardy Carroll.

In the 1860 census of New Hope district, Wayne County: Jo Carrol, 55, wife Melvina, 50, and children Hannah, 25, Daniel, 22, Jo, 21, Willis, 18, Nicy, 17, Vina, 13, Delilah, 10, Ruffin, 6, and Tamar, 3.

Isaac Carrol.  Died 14 Jul 1925, Wilson Mill, Johnston County. Colored. Married to Rosa Carrol. Fireman. Age 60. Born Four Oaks, Johnston County, to Ruffin Carrol and Betsey Carrol.  Buried Vinson cemetery.  Informant, W.M. Rodgers.

James Carrol. Died 30 Jul 1936, Four Oaks, Johnston County. Colored. Widower of Susan Carrol. Farmer. Born 28 Jun 1857 in Johnston County to Ruffin Carrol and Bettie Carrol. Informant, Mrs. Wilkins.

In the 1860 census of the district west of the Neuse River, Johnston County: Ruffin Carroll, 37, cooper, wife Elizabeth, 36, and children William, 15, Isaac, 10, James, 7, and Major, 1.

William Armwood.


WILLIAM ARMWOOD, born circa 1835 in Sampson County to Major and Eliza Armwood.  He married Martha “Matta” Simmons, daughter of James and Winnie Medlin Simmons.  They lived into the 1920s.

The 1850 census of the Northern District of Duplin County lists Major Armwood, 53, wife Eliza, 42, and son William, 14, plus Mariah Brewington, 10.

Photo courtesy of Andrea Gooden.

Disfranchisement? Mere error in judgment.

Jared Peavey v. William A. Robbins et al., 48 NC 339 (1856).

Election inspectors refused to receive a vote from Jared Peavey.  At trial in Brunswick Superior Court, Peavey called a witness who testified that Peavey’s mother and grandmother were white women, that his father was a dark colored man with straight hair, and his grandfather was a red-faced mulatto with dark straight hair.  The judge charged the jury that, if Peavey’s grandfather “was half and half, that is, half white and half black,” then Peavey was “within the fourth degree,” i.e. within four generations of a black ancestor, and could not prevail.  Moreover, election inspectors are, under the law, the exclusive judges of voter qualifications and, no corruption being charged here, were not responsible for mere error in judgment.

Jerod Peavy, 20, and wife Elizabeth, 18, appear in the 1850 census of Brunswick County.  Both are described as mulatto.