Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

She had been ailing for some years.

Found Dead.

Coroner Jones held an inquest on yesterday, over the body of a free negro woman, named Betsey Hagan, aged about 60 years, found dead on the lot of Mr. J.W. Potter, in the Eastern portion of the town. It appears that the woman livef in a small house on Mr. P’s lot, and that early in the morning , as himself and his brother came out of his house o, they found the woman lying dead in the yard. She had been “ailing” for some years, and it is supposed, that in going out that she came to her death from natural causes.

Wilmington Daily Journal, 9 September 1860.

His razors are of the first quality.

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Fayetteville Weekly Observer, 10 January 1827.

New Barber Shop.

“Act well your part, there all the honor lies.”

HORACE HENDERSON respectfully informs the gentlemen of Fayetteville, and the public generally, that he has taken the shop on Gillespie street formerly occupied by D. Ochiltree, Esq. and nearly opposite the State Bank, where the above business will be carried on in all its various branches. He flatters himself that from the circumstance of his having been born and raised in Fayetteville, his known habits of industry and sobriety, to merit and receive a liberal share of patronage. His Razors and other materials are of the first quality and shall always be kept int he best order.

Fayetteville, January 10, 1827.

——

Horace Henderson was enslaved, though he lived much like a free man. His wife Lovedy Henderson  petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly for his freedom in 1832.

Hat tip to Gabby Faith for the clipping.

Nathan Blackwell’s will and desire.

this the 24th of January 1845 }   this my desire and will that I give to Josiah and Nathan Axum Andrew & all my property to be Equally divided and I want Asberry Blackwell to take Andrew and see to his labor for my children to the best advantage also take my children and take care of them and satisfy himself for his troble out of my property this my Last will and testament whereunto I now set my han and Seal to        Nathan (X) Blackwell {seal}

Test  James F. Mercer, Thomas Mercer

Nathan Blackwell received a marriage license to marry Jincey Powell on 15 December 1838 in Nash County, North Carolina. Elijah Powell and Henry Bount were bondsmen, and B.H. Blount, a witness.

In the 1840 census of Nash County, North Carolina, Nathan Blackwell headed a household comprised of one free colored male, aged 10-23; one free colored female, aged 10-23; and two free colored males under 10. In the 1850 census of Nash County, Asberry Blackwell [likely Nathan’s brother] lived alone.

Nathan’s children are not found in the 1850 census. In 1860, Josiah Blackwell, 21, was listed as a steam mill laborer in the household of engineer John Valentine. On 27 March 1861, Josiah married Becky Mitchell at Wiley Lamm’s steam mill. In 1860, Nathan E. Blackwell, 20, is listed as a wagoner living in the household of farmer Robinson Baker in Wilson County.

North Carolina Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [database on-line], ancestry.com.

Life on Underwood Settlement.

“John Underwood, a “free Negro” living on a farm he owned in pre-Civil War Vigo County, took part in the dangerous work of helping fugitive slaves flee the United States to Canada as part of the “Underground Railroad.”

“On one occasion, slave catchers discovered what Underwood was doing and “were threatening to do [him] bodily harm,” according to John W. Lyda’s book, “The Negro in the History of Indiana.” But Underwood, a member of the local Masonic lodge “saved himself by giving the Masonic Recognition sign. As those who were threatening him were themselves members of that lodge, they desisted from injuring him,” Lyda wrote.

“This story is one of few that remain from what was once a thriving black settlement in Linton Township in southern Vigo County. Settled by [North Carolina-born] John Underwood in about 1841, it was one of dozens of free, black settlements in Indiana that existed many years before the Emancipation Proclamation was signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. It became known as the Underwood Settlement. …”

See Arthur Foulkes, “Life on Underwood Settlement,” Terre Haute Tribune Star, 13 February 2011.

[Hat tip to Edie Lee Harris.]

Stout built mulatto girl ran away.

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Five Cents Reward.

RAN AWAY from the Subscriber, on the 29th of August last, an indented mulatto girl, named

TEMPE JONES,

In the 20th year of her age, 5 feet 4 or 5 inches high, stout built, and bright yellow complexion. The above reward, but no charges, will be paid on her apprehension and delivery to the Subscriber. All persons are hereby forbid harboring or employing said girl under penalty of the law. STEPHEN HARPER.

Sept. 11, 1832.

North Carolina Free Press, 2 October 1832.

Give her of the fruit of her hands.

Lydia, daughter of Theopolis Miller Winslow, was born March 7, 1846, and died Oct. 27, 1913. When she was but a child her mother died and she was raised in a family of Friends, living with them until she was united in marriage to Parker Jones. To them were born four children, George, Mattie, William and Daniel. Three are still living, George, Mattie and Daniel, with several grandchildren and many relatives and friends to mourn their loss. William died when a child. Her husband died twelve years ago. She belonged to the A.M.E. church at Dublin, and while not a constant attendant, she carried within her breast that hidden treasure, that quiet peace, which the world knoweth not of. She was strictly honest and truthful in all her dealings. It was her greatest pleasure to make her home happy. Her children rise up and call her blessed, and her husband did praise her. Give her of the fruit of her hands and let her own works praise her in the gates.

Funeral services at the home Wednesday afternoon by the Rev. Baker, of Muncie, and Rev. Hill, the local pastor. Burial in Capital Hill.

Cambridge (Indiana) City Tribune, 30 October 1913.

He stole his indentures.

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Tarboro Free Press, 4 May 1833.

$5 Reward.

RAN AWAY from the Subscriber, on Sunday night last, an indented apprentice, a colored boy, named

WILLIS HAMMONDS,

Aged about 16 years, tolerably stout built, bright complexion and bushy head. His grandmother is a free woman named Olive Hammonds, and lives in Halifax county, where I expect Willis will try to get, as he has several other connections in that county. Said boy stole his indentures, and will probably try to pass himself with them as free. The above reward will be paid for his recovery, if delivered to me, in Edgecombe county, near Col. Benj. Sharpe’s, or secured in any jail so that I can get him. All persons are forbid harboring or employing said boy, under penalty of the law.  WILLIAM BROWN.

April 9, 1833.

Highland County, Ohio, Register of Blacks.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of the said county one of the Trustees of the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by power vested in me by Sampson Lawrence of same county , have removed to Highland County , Ohio a negro man named Smith White, dark complexion, middle size, about 27 years of age and his wife, Louisa and her child Elizabeth, all who belonged to Sampson Lawrence above named, Louisa about 20 years of age. That these persons ave been manumitted to manage themselves. 12th day, 10th month, 1825. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan Hunt. Rec. 7-15-1836, Highland Co., Ohio.

In the 1840 census of Fairfield, Highland County, Ohio: Smith White is head of a household that includes one male aged 24-35, one male under 10, one female aged 55-100, one female aged 24-25 and three females under 10; all free persons of color. Per findagrave.com, Smith White died 26 April 1849 and is buried in Fairfield Quaker cemetery, Leesburg, Highland County.

Jane White, Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state as agent or trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina and by authority vested in me, manumit and set free a negro woman, Jane, dark complexion, about 49 years of age and her daughter, Louisa about same colour, aged 20 years, and her son, Bartlet about 10 years old. Also Louisa’s John. That they are now in Highland County, Ohio having left this county in 1834 under control of Thaddeus White and William Nixon, dated 13th day, 10th month, 1835.  /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan hunt. Recorded 7-15-1836 Highland Co., Ohio.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state, agent or trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by authority vested in me, do manumit and set free a woman of colour named Winney Lamb and her three children: Elizabeth, Thomas and Louisa; also, Theophelus Winslow now in Wayne County, Indiana, he is about 27 years old, 6 feet high, tolerably dark complexion and is the son of Betty Winslow of Highland County, Ohio. Said Winney Lamb is a low woman of yellow complexion about 42 years old and with her children are now in Highland County, Ohio. That they left this state in 1834 under the care of Thaddeus White and William Nixon, dated 13th of 10th month, 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan Hunt. Recorded 7-15-1836 Highand Co., Ohio.

In the 1840 census of Washington, Wayne County, Indiana, Theophilus Winslow headed a household of two persons of color. On 20 August 1838, he received a land grant of 80 acres in Wayne County, Indiana. On 4 November 1838, he married Milly Anderson in Wayne County. Records show that he was a member of Milford Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends. In the 1850 census of Washington, Wayne County, Indiana: 40 year-old North Carolina-born farm Theophilus Winslow, wife Milly, 40, and daughter Lydia, 6. In the 1880 census of Dublin, Wayne County, Indiana: Theophilus Winslow, 72, wife Martha, 64, and “friend” Harriet Wallace, 70.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state, as agent or trustee of the North Carolina Friends Yearly Meeting  and by power as their agent, have removed to Highland County, Ohio, a negro woman, Edith Rutcliff, aged about 40 years and her son, Amzel, commonly called Amzel Watkins aged 20 years, middle size swings himself greatly when he walks, have manumitted these persons with full liberty to do for themselves. 12th of 10th month, 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan hunt. Rec. 7-15-1836.

Possibly, Amzel Watkins, 1113 Ohio, who is listed in the 1865 edition of Gopsill’s Pennsylvania State Business Directory as a variety store owner in Philadelphia.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state as agent or trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by power as their agent manumit and set free the following people of colour now in Highland County, Ohio, namely: Betty Winslow aged about 50 years, her sons: Joseph Winslow, Robinson, Henry, Alfred and John and daughter Mary Ann, they having left this state in 1834 under the care of Thaddeus White and Wm Nixon. Said Joseph is about 24 years, very dark in colour, middle size. Robinson is of middle size, of dark complexion and 22 years old. Henry is tall, then and yellow complexion, about 20 years of age. Alfred is about 15 years of age. John is about 8 years old and Mary Ann is about 14 years old. Dated this 13th day of 10th month 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan hunt. Rec. 7-14-1836.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. I, David White of said county and state as agent and trustee for the yearly meeting of Friends of North Carolina by power as their agent have removed to Highland County, Ohio, a certain negro woman named Patience the wife of Daniel White and their five children — Nancy, Wiley, Smith, Peter and Mary; also, the above named Daniel White whom I bought of Jonathan White of Perquimans Co., North Carolina and do manumit all said persons from slavery. Daniel White is aged about 35 years, yellow complexion and a stout make; his wife, Patience, is about 30 years of age and a shade darker than her husband, 12th of 10th month, 1835. /s/ David White. Wit: Nathan Hunt. Rec. 7-15-1836.

That Robert Peele and Thomas I. Outland of Northampton County, North Carolina being legally authorized and empowered by trustees of the yearly meeting of the Society of Friends of North Carolina take charge and convey to the State of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, Turner Peele together with a number of other colored people held by said trustees, said Robert Peele and Thomas I. Outland having removed and placed said Turner Peele together with a number of others in Highland County, Ohio and that said Turner Peele is a free man, dated this 1st day of 12th month, 1836. Recorded 8-11-1837.

In the 1850 census of Fairfield, Highland County, Ohio: 37 year-old North Carolina-born Turner Peal and wife Julia A. Peal, 27. In the 1870 census of same: Turner Peal, 57, wife Julia A., 45, and children Minover, 22, and Edward P., 16, plus James Hays, 10, and Laura West, 3.

Perquimans County, North Carolina. Before me, Jonah Perry one of the Justices of the Peace for said county came Nathan Winslow and deposeth that he knew Harrison Winslow a man of color of said county to be free born about 21 years of age, rather of a dark complexion, 5 feet 6 inches high with a small scar over the right eye. Dated 10th January 1838. Recorded 1-2-1842.

Highland County, Ohio. Personally appeared before me Augustus Brown a Justice of the Peace for said county, John Bolt who saith that he was well acquainted with Jerry Oldham and Asa, his son, both men of color in the state of North Carolina and that they were the property of his father, Charles Bolt, and that they gave him their freedom and they have been set free from Nov. 28, 1826 as by certificate, dated Jan. 17, 1840. Certificate: This is to certify that I have the negroes Jerry and Asa Oldham liberty to go with my son, William, to Ohio, dated Nov. 28, 1826. /s/ Charles Bolt. Rec. 2-28-1840.

Jeremiah Oldham is listed as a head of household in the 1830 and 1840 censuses of Fairfield, Highland County, Ohio. In the 1850 census of Wayne, Clinton County, Ohio: Virginia-born Asa Oldham, 30, with children Elizabeth J., 5, and Andrew, 2. In the 1900 census of Van Buren, Shelby County, Ohio: 80 year-old widower Asa Oldham and boarder John Powell, 41.

Highland County, Ohio. Leesburgh. That Samuel White and Ormond White by power of attorney executed to them by David White of Perquimans County, North Carolina and Joseph Parker of Pasquotank County, North Carolina trustees of the yearly meeting of the Society of Friends, brought and set at liberty, Luke Wislow and Levina his wife to enjoy freedom of the state of Ohio as may appear more fully by records of Henry County, Indiana, where the power of attorney is recorded, dated this 12th day, 10th month, 1841.

——

Register of Blacks, Highland County, Ohio, Office of Clerk of Court, Hillsboro, Highland County, Ohio; federal population schedules; U.S. General Land Office Records, 1796-1907 [database on-line], ancestry.com; Men’s Minutes, 1845-1864, Indiana Yearly Meeting Minutes Collection, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana (U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935 [database on-line], ancestry.com)

Did unlawfully live as man and wife.

State of North Carolina, Wilson County to wit:

Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions January Term AD 1859

The Jurors for the State on their oath present that Benjamin Price a free negro late of the County of Wilson on the 1st day of December AD 1858 and divers other days and times both before and after that day at and in the county aforesaid did unlawfully cohabit & live as man & wife with Easter a slave the property of Dempsey Barnes contrary to the form of the statute in such cases made & provided and against the peace & dignity of the state.    /s/ B.B. Barnes Sol

[Reverse: State vs Ben Price A Slave for Wife / Gov Pros Wit Dempsey Barnes  / Not a true Bill W.E.J. Shallington For’n Grand Jury]

Miscellaneous Records, Wilson County Records, North Carolina State Archives.

The Chubbs of Chubbtown.

The history of the Chubb Chapel, and in fact Chubbtown itself, must be seen in the context of the Chubb family and its struggle first to escape slavery and then as a rare, free-black family to migrate seeking better opportunities, as did most of its free white contemporaries.

The history of the Chubb family in North America dates back at least to 1775. Nicholas Chubb is listed a free colored male, head of a household on the 1820 census of Caswell County, North Carolina. His age is listed as 45 years or older, which means that Nicholas Chubb probably was not born later than 1775, whether he was born free, or in slavery is not known. If born a slave, it is not yet known when or under what circumstances he was freed.

Isaac Chubb, born about 1797 in North Carolina, is presumed to be one of Nicholas Chubb’s sons. Isaac appeared as a free black in the 1830 Census of Caswell County, North Carolina and shortly thereafter migrated to north Georgia before 1833 when his first child is recorded as having been born in Georgia. It is important to note that Isaac Chubb, a free black male, migrated with his family to Georgia, a slave state, rather than to a northern free state. Isaac Chubb, who was a blacksmith by profession, apparently was successful enough in his profession to keep his family together. In 1850, Isaac and his family were living in Morgan County, Georgia.

In 1850, Georgia’s population was just over 906,000 people with just over 381,000 being slave, and 521,000 free whites. Only 2,931 were listed as free blacks, and of these 16 were recorded living in Morgan County. Of these 16, 10 were Isaac Chubb and family. The only large congregation of free blacks in the state were in the larger cities of Savannah, Augusta, Macon, and Columbus.

By 1860, Georgia’s total population had risen to 1,057,000 or so, with whites making up 591,000 or so, while the slave population had grown to over 462,000. The free black total had grown to 3500 exactly.

While the 1860 Census does not reflect the exact whereabouts of the Chubb family, it would appear that they were already in Floyd County. The free black residents of Morgan County totalled 16 in 1850 (of which 10 were Isaac and family) and only 7 in 1860, for a loss of 9. Floyd County, on the other hand, had only 4 free blacks in 1850 but had gained 9 for a total of 13 in 1860.

Isaac Chubb and his eight sons (William, Henry, John, Thomas, Jacob, Isaac, Jr., Nicholas and George) thus arrived at, or were subsequently born in, Floyd County, Georgia, by the early 1860s. Neither research nor family tradition has indicated any reason for this northwesterly move. The older sons soon began purchasing real estate before the end of the Civil War. Henry Chubb purchased 120 acres in 1864 before the end of the war.

The 1870 census of Floyd County, Georgia, reflects that Isaac was dead and Henry was head of the family. The census lists the various occupations of the brothers as blacksmith, wagon maker, house carpenter, sawmill operator and the rest farmers. Apparently, these varied talents enabled the Chubb brothers to prosper.

Chubb Chapel United Methodist Church was established in a community that most probably was one of a kind, one that was established and owned by blacks before the turn of the century in the United States.

Legend has it that the community in which Chubb Chapel United Methodist Church is located was once inhabited by the Cherokee Indians before they were forced to relocate during the winter of 1838-1939.

In an undated deed recorded on August 8, 1870, “Henry Chubb and brothers, of town of Cave Spring” conveyed for $200 approximately one acre of land “at Chubbs” to the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with “a house now situated on said lot and occupied as a school and a place of religious worship by the colored people.” Henry Chubb, one of the Chubb Brothers, was one of the original trustees.

Although William Chubb was the oldest son of Isaac Chubb, Sr. as shown on the census, Henry Chubb seems to have taken on the role as head of the Chubb family in Floyd County. The wording of the church deed, Henry’s inclusion as the sole Chubb family member as one of the trustees and his listing in the 1870 census support the tradition that Henry Chubb had become head of the Chubb family in Floyd County by 1870.

During the Post-Reconstruction period the Chubb brothers continued purchasing real estate. Their real estate holdings became a self- sufficient community known as Chubbtown. Chubbtown provided goods and services to white and black residents of the surrounding areas.

Chubbtown was indeed a self-sufficient community. The community, which was serviced by its own post office, was composed of a general store, blacksmith shop, grist mill, distillery, syrup mill, saw mill, wagon company, cotton gin, casket (coffin) company and several farms, all owned and operated by the Chubb family.

The Chubb family remained and prospered in Floyd County, Georgia, while many southern blacks were seeking prosperity in the north. The family’s prosperity declined around the 1940s when a flood destroyed many of the family’s businesses.

By the 1870 census, Henry Chubb had acquired considerable property as an individual, separate from the family’s holdings. Perhaps this is the reason that he became the head of the family.

In the county’s first official county history, A History of Rome and Floyd County, written by George M. Battey, Jr., and published in 1922, the family and its community even attracted the attention of the white community of Floyd County, as seen by the following reference to the family in the encyclopedic section under the heading “Darkeys of Rome, Old-Time”: “Chubb Family: These darkeys were farmers around Chubbtown, near Cave Spring and the Polk County line, whose industry and thrift enabled them to accumulate considerable property, gins, mills, houses, etc. They were law-abiding, respected by the whites and generally good citizens. Their master set them free before the Civil War.”

Although the reference to the Chubbs as “darkeys” certainly will not amuse the current descendants of the Chubb brothers, the reference must be put in its proper historic context. They were the only black family discussed, all the other entries were individuals. The history was published in 1922, when far more insulting words were used to describe blacks. What is far more important to note is that Chubbtown, a community established by blacks, had gained such respect and prominence that it could not be ignored by the white author. As in all Georgia county histories of the era, blacks were relegated to only brief mentions, or appendices, even though in many counties they had long constituted a major percentage of the population.

Perhaps the descendants of the Chubb brothers will not find the following reference to Chubbtown, from the same history, as offensive as the preceding one:

“Chubbtown is a settlement of prosperous and respectable negroes four miles southeast of Cave Spring at the Polk County line.” (p. 397)

The Chubb brothers and Chubbtown certainly had received some recognition by the 1920s. Unfortunately, by 1940 all of the Chubb brothers had died; however, their dreams and lives lived on through their children. The Chubb brothers (William, Henry, John, Thomas, Jacob, Isaac, Nicholas and George) along with many of their children and other descendants are buried in the Chubb Cemetery, located on land donated by the Chubb and Jones families in Chubbtown.

Although the community that the Chubb brothers established is no longer a self-sufficient town and is no longer exclusively owned by members of the Chubb family, it continues to bear the name Chubbtown, and is recognized as such on the U.S.G.S. topographic map, Cedartown West Quadrangle.

The church that the Chubb brothers helped establish in August 1870 stands today and is still operating as a church and is now known as Chubb Chapel United Methodist Church. It is the only historic building dating from the period of Chubbtown’s historic development.

From the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form for Chubb Methodist Episcopal Church, Cave Spring, Georgia.

[Sidenote: Arguably, the most famous Chubb is patriarch Nicholas’ namesake, Georgia Bulldog running back Nick Chubb.]

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