Fourth Generation Inclusive

Historical Documents of Genealogical Interest to Researchers of North Carolina's Free People of Color

He strove to entice.

A Free Negro Entices a Slave to Runaway

Kit Huffman, a free negro who was tried for murder last spring in our Court, has enticed a boy, the property of Wm. Cade, Esq., of this place, to run away with him and go North. It seems that for some time past he had been striving to entice two of Mr. Cade’s boys (brothers) away, and prevailed upon one to do so. Kitt was up here on Wednesday, but left in the boat for Wilmington, just one hour before the officer arrived at the wharf. It is expected that he will leave the boat at White Hall or some place between this and Wilmington, and meet the boy at some place before arranged upon. Kitt is a bright mulatto, about 5 feet 11 inches or 6 feet high. The citizens of this and adjoining counties ought to keep good look out for them. – Fay. Carolinian.

Wilmington Daily Herald, 20 February 1860.

In the old times and old Country.

State of Indiana, Marion County }

Reuben Lawhon of the age of 50 years and George Lawhon of the age of 20 years both of the County of Park and State of Indiana being duly sworn – They testify that they have been well acquainted with Primus Tyler for all the lifetime of the affiant George Lawhon also with his son Shepherd Tyler all his lifetime and with Betsey or Elizabeth Tyler in her lifetime – She was the mother of the said Shepherd Tyler – Shepherd died unmarried – He was a good and faithful son He supported his Father and Mother in her lifetime – Primus Tyler was a slave in Green Co North Carolina – his family were free and came to Indiana and raised money through the Friend Quakers to buy him – which they in 1851 when he came here to this state and leased and rented some land in the quaker settlement in Park Co Indiana for some three years or more – this said same Shepherd Tyler working for his parents during this time – Then Primus Tyler rented a small farm from Thomas Harshman which was about ten years ago – they lived on that for one year when his wife and children purchased the far – 158 acres and gave about $4000.00 for it – on which his children still owe about $1300.00 and he now lives with his children on that place – His said son gave him $100.00 Bounty when he enlisted and his son was killed before he was again paid – since which he has collected the arrears of pay and Bounty – Primus Tyler is old and feeble and has long been disabled from rheumatism — affiants have not interest in this matter.   Reuben X Lawhon, /s/ George W. Lawhorn

[Witnesses] Ben D. House, William Saulsberry

——

State of Indiana, County of Parke   }

Ephraim Cook aged Sixty years and Walden Russell aged 41 years residents of the County and State aforesaid being duly sworn upon their several oaths declare that are well acquainted with the family of Primus Tyler and were acquainted with his wife Elizabeth Tyler in her lifetime who departed this life July 6th 1861 and they further declare that the said Primus and Elizabeth Tyler were the parents of Shepherd Tyler late Co C 28th Regt US.C.T. who was killed at Chickahominy Swamp June 1864.They further declare that they personally know that the said Primus and Elizabeth Tyler were married in Green Co N.C. in the year 1827 the said Primus being at that time a slave and the said Elizabeth free and that the said Elizabeth Tyler thereafter bought the said Primus Tyler affiant’s knowledge of these matters is derived from an intimate personal acquaintance with all of the above mentioned parties and a consequent personal cognizance of the matters testified of and they have no interest in this matter. /s/ Ephraim Cook, Walden Russel

——

Catlin Station Ind. Mar 24th 1869

Mr Harlan Hamlin, Indianapolis

Dear Sir, Inclosed you will please find a bill of sale conveying me from Elizabeth Edwards of North Carolina to James Siler of Indiana and on the same bill under the hand of the said Siler is a writing relinquishing all claims and demands on me to Elizabeth Tyler my wife showing conclusively that the facts was known & recognized by those of that day familiar with the class With regard to living witness I don’t suppose I can produce any from they being advanced in age. I have outlived all those that was present at the time I was married according to the manor and custome of such persons in the old times and old Country which was simply to prepare a supper invite in the friends and at the proper time the groom & bride took their places at the ends of the table facing each other after supper the parties was considered duly married and was recognized by the law when not conflicting with the interest of the masters. Inclosed you please find a postage stamp with which to return the inclosed bill and I trust you will let me know immediately whether it will do any good or not if it wont do I want to know so I may look in some other direction /s/ Primus Tyler

DSCF2212 copy

From the file in the Pension Application of Shepherd Tyler, deceased (by his father Primus Tyler), #171234, National Archives and Records Administration.

——

In the 1850 census of Greene County, North Carolina: Elizabeth Tyler, 40, with children Shepherd, 11, Sally, 1, and Nancy, 5.

In the 1850 census of District 85, Parke County, Indiana: Reuben Lawhorn, 36, Eiza, 25, Oliver, 5, Alice, 2, George, 9 months, all born in North Carolina; plus George, 24, Nancy, 20, Hymerick, 18, Elizabeth, 17, Primus, 16, Avy, 14, and Moses Tyler, 13, all born in North Carolina.

In the 1860 census of Raccoon, Parke County, Indiana: at #386, farm laborer Reuben Lohorn, 40, Eliza, 36, Oliver, 15, Alice M., 13, George, 11, Susan, 8, Alfred, 4, Martha A., 3, and Elias, 3 months. Reuben, Eliza and the oldest two children were born in North Carolina; the remaining children in Indiana.) At #387, Primus Tyler, 60, Betsey, 45, Richard, Arcada, Primus, Moses, 18, Elizabeth, 20, Shepherd, Nancy B., Sally A., Edward F., Elwood, and Matilda J. (Note: Arcada, nee Artis, was Richard’s wife. He, too, enlisted in the Union Army, and his widow applied for a pension. In the 1850 census of District 85, Parke County, Indiana: Micajach Artis, 50, Beaty, 40, Arcada, 17, Eliza, 14, Burket, 4, and Henriette, 1; all born in North Carolina except Henriette, born in Indiana. Burkett Artis gave minor testimony in support of Primus Tyler’s application. Micajah is listed as a head of household in the 1830 census of Nash County NC and the 1840 census of Wayne County NC. A Micajah Artis married Rilly Eatmon in Edgecombe County in 1826. The three counties were contiguous at the time.)

Where are they now?, no. 21.

Y.R. was born in circa 1930 in Oxford NC.  She is descended from these free people of color:

(1) Elizabeth Anderson [1825-??, Granville County]

(2) Emaline Bookram [1827-1897, Granville County]

(3) Burwell Brandon [1785-??, Virginia/Granville County] > Elizabeth Brandon [1833-??, Granville County] > Parthenia Brandon [1851-1934, Granville County]

(4) Jesse Hedgepeth [1823-1897, Orange/Granville County] > William Turner Hedgepeth [1861-1946, Granville County]

(5) Alexander Howell [1815-??, Granville County] > Junius Thomas Howell [1848-??, Granville County]

(6) Lucy Stoye [1795-??, Virginia/Granville County]

An anniversary; a thank you.

Fourth Generation Inclusive turned two a couple of days ago. More than 1100 posts (and 50,000+ views!) later, I’m still excited about the project and steady on the hunt for any source that documents the obscure and poorly understood lives of North Carolina’s free people of color.

Thanks for your support!

Lisa Y. Henderson

An heirloom wart cure.

Wilson_Advance_12_26_1895_Reid_Wart_Cure

Wilson Advance, 26 December 1895.

In the 1850 census, North Side of the Neuse, Wayne County: farmhand Washington Read, 28, wife Pennina, 25, and daughter Lewiser, 2 months.

A landmark.

The death of Green Simmons, an old and well known colored landmark, of Dudley, occurred last night.

Goldsboro Daily Argus, 7 January 1901.

In the 1850 census of South Side of the Neuse, Wayne County: cooper Green Simmons, 33, wife Betsy J., 26, and children Needham, 5, Cicero, 3, and Mary, 1.

The horrid deed.

MURDER. – An inquest was held by coroner Scott over the body of a free negro named Chaves, who was found murdered on the Fayetteville road, several miles from this city, on Friday morning last. His death was caused by a frightful wound extending from the groin upwards towards the bowls, which was doubtless made by a knife. The testimony before the coroner’s jury, we learn, implicates a free negro named Jordan, and a free woman in the horrid deed. The woman has been lodged in jail, but the man has not been taken.

The North-Carolina Star (Raleigh), 8 November 1854.

She might have gone off with him.

$10 Reward.

RANAWAY from the Subscriber, about the 15th ult. a negro woman named HANNAH; formerly the property of Col. Edward Williams, of Onslow County, but more recently owned by Richard Saunders, Esq. Hannah is above the ordinary size, black complexion – about Forty years of age. – She has relations in Onslow county and at Rocky Point.

She has, for some years past, been living with a free colored man named Isaac Scott, who has left this place, and she might have gone off with him.

I will give the above reward for her apprehension, upon delivery to me at Wilmington, or confinement in any jail, so that I may recover her. ANN GUTHRIE. Wilmington, Sept. 11th, 1835.

Wilmington People’s Press and Advertiser, 25 September 1835.

He has gone by a false name.

WAS TAKEN UP and committed to the Jail of Craven Co., a mulatto man by the name of Clinton Oxendine, and is of the medium size and height. Said man says, since he was put in Jail, that he was gone by a false name, but says he is a free negro and that his name is Jacob Goings, and was sold several years ago for cost in Cumberland county, and John Wright became the purchaser for five years, and afterwards the said Wright sold him to Littleton Gunn of Roberson county. The owner is requested to come forward, prove property, pay charges and take him away or he will be dealt with as the law directs. A.C. LATHAM, Sheriff. By W.S. BALLENGER, D. Sheriff. Jan. 1, 1862

Newbern Daily Progress, 21 January 1862.

Intemperance and exposure.

Coroner’s Inquest.

On Sunday, 16th inst., a jury of inquest was held upon the dead body of Caroline Alfonzo, a free colored woman: the evidence proved her to be a drudge laborer about town. At her will, she was the wife of Ned, a superannuated slave, formerly the property of John W. Guion, dec’d. On Saturday, the 15th inst., at 3 o’clock, P.M., she parted company with Ned in good health and went to the house of Mrs. Emily Jane Fulford to fulfill an engagement with her. She left Mrs. Fulford’s about 1 ½ hours before night-fall, and took with her a tray of plates containing sausages and pigs feet to sell for Mrs. Fulford – she was under the influence of liquor at the time, — she did not return to her husband nor her employer as was her custom to do. Sunday morning Caroline was found dead in the road leading to Pembrook near the South-West part of the town: on examination there was traces of blood from where she lay to a ditch about thirty yards distant; a smooth deep cut on her right cheek was the only mark of violence found on the body. By request of the Jury, Dr. R.S. Primrose examined the wound and pronounced it insufficient to produce death and stated that it might have been the result of accident. The clothes of the deceased were wet and frozen; the ditch had water in it about 3 ½ feet deep, and showed that it had been recently disturbed; a tray, some crockery and plates, etc. lay near the body. In her pockets was ninety cents, in silver and copper coin, a snuff-box, &c.

Verdict of the Jury was: “The deceased came to her death by intemperance and exposure.”

Newbern Weekly Progress, 18 December 1860.

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